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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (60):
1

5 factors that determine the suitability of a material

Type of material
Shape
Orientation or plane
Mass
Material surface, rough, smooth

2

Surface to mass as it relates to FFing

The more mass a material has relative to the exposed surface area, the more resistant to heat

3

When a material degrades it also__________. And a change in shape can cause a change in _________

Deforms
Load imposition

4

Most new buildings are_____________and __________

high strength
Low mass

5

Brittle

Ductile

Fracture as it is stressed-
Masonry, tile, cast iron

Bend deflect or stretch as a load is applied
Most metal, plastic and wood

6

4 basic building materials

Wood
Steel
Concrete
Masonry

7

All native woods are not the same, name 6 types

Hard
Soft
Tight grained
Knotty
Old growth
New growth

8

How long before Pine and Spruce trees can be cut?

25 years

9

What is Pitch?

Found in trees, burns like a petroleum product.
New growth trees have more of it than old growth

10

Wood used to be cut from:

The heart of the tree which was denser and had less pitch

11

In what year and in what way did wood standards change?

1986, went from Utility, std, construction grade, and select to
#3,#2, and #1 with 1 being the best

12

What type of wood used to be used for exterior? Interior?

Douglas Fir
White fir, Hemlock

Now the white fir is used on the eXterioir

13

What's the difference between full dimensional and nominal dimension lumber?

1/2",

14

Traditional wood products are primarily

Heavy timber
Glue-laminated beams and columns
Sheathing

Different from EWP

15

Glulams:

Made from smaller pieces, used to be strapped together, then glued. Glues are toxic

16

3 types of sheathing

Plywood-altering veneers at 90

Particle Board-pyrolizing flashover

Decorative sheathing-1/8- 3/8- does not support weight

17

What has replaced plywood?

OSB

18

Can you use Decorative wood sheathing for interior panels?

NO, not by code

19

EWP

Transform wood chips, slivers, veneers, shavings and even recycled products to make wood

New growth wood, cellulose, wheat, straw, lots of pitch and loose grained

20

EWP process

Processed, milled, emulsified (add adhesives, and then auto claved( heat and pressure) into shape

21

6 types of EWP

OSB
LVL-laminated veneer lumber
LSL-strand
CLT-Cross lam timber
GLT-Glue Lam timber
Finger jointed

22

OSB, describe

Urea-formaldehyde
Degrades in sunlight, moisture and heat
Randomly oriented layers
Will ignite and burn rapidly
Roof and floor assemblies

23

LVL

Phenolic Resin
Native wood stacked with aligned grains
Designed to have load imposed axial lay and perpendicular to the grain
Beams, joists, rafters, columns, studs, rim boards

24

LSL-Lam strand or PSL, parallel strand lumber

Urea, phenolic resin or phenol formaldehyde
Uses strands oriented in a parallel fashion
Used like LVL, but fails sooner

25

CLT-cross lam

3-7 layers
Rotated 90 degrees
Structurally sound form of plywood, but thicker
Eco for sound and carbon foot print
Used for columns

26

How is CLT a green product

Per 1 ton of wood, it takes 5 times more energy to make concrete,
24 times for steel, and
126 times for aluminum

27

GLT-Glulam Timber

Similar to Glulam
Loved by designers for the shapes it can make
Uses pieces of timber
Columns and beams

28

Finger jointed, FJL

Using native wood,
Mitered, pressed and glued to make long pieces of lumber
Can make 90 degree pieces!

29

4 types of adhesives used in EWP

Urea form
Phenol form
Melamine form
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate -expensive

30

Steel is made from

Iron ore, carbon and an alloy agent

31

3 ways steel is formed

Casting, hot rolled or cold rolled...Rick rolled

32

Hot rolled steel - extruded

Shaped at temps above the crystallization stage
Thinner sheets and shapes

33

Cold rolled steel

Shaped as it cools
Below crystallization temps
Stronger than hot rolled
Cut or rolled steel
Nuts, bolts, wires, rebar

34

Two weaknesses of steel from a fire service view

Engineered for specific applications
Softens and elongates when heated

35

Strength of steel

Resists, compression, tension and shear forces

36

Cold rolled steel loses its strength at:

Hot rolled steel:

55% at 800

50% at 1100

And it can elongate at 1000 degrees, 10"/100ft

37

Cast iron

Brittle
Good compressive
Ok shear strength
Used to be used structurally,
Can resist slow heating and cooling, but might explode if cooled too quickly in a fire

38

Aluminum

Most abundant
Soft
Height strength/weight
Ductile
Non corrosive and non magnetic

39

Why does aluminum fail in a fire?

Low mass and ductile nature

40

Titanium

Similar to Aluminum
Exception to the lightweight view of early failure
Expensive

41

What makes up concrete

Portland cement, sand, and aggregate

42

Low slump concrete is

Stronger
Lower water to cement ratio

43

High slump concrete

Is weaker
Wetter
Flows easier

44

Cured concrete has excellent___________, but poor__ and _____

Compressive strength
Shear and tensile

45

Reinforced concrete

Poured over rebar, becomes part of cured mass

46

Pre- and post tensioned concrete

Has steel cables through the plane of the material, compressing the concrete

47

Precast concrete

Slabs, tilt up, roof, walls and floors

48

Monolithic buildings

Concrete built with wood forms
One floor at a time
Floors are built on scaffold like platform called false work

49

Unlike steel, concrete is a _____ ________and tends to slowly_________and _________heat. Steel _______ heat

Heat sink
Absorb and retain
Conducts

50

Spalling

Caused by moisture in the concrete that when heated can cause cracking, cracking can expose rebar which will conduct heat and cause major failure

51

How can concrete buildings be a hazard after a fire to FF?

Retain heat, making it strenuous to do overhaul

52

Masonry terms

CMU-
Veneer wall-

CMU- concrete masonry unit
Veneer wall- only supports its own weight

53

Mortar is made of
And

Sand, cement, and lime, and water

Has little to no tensile or shear strength

54

As axial loads and compressive forces increase

Masonry walls get stronger

55

Composites

Designed to offer maximum strength with minimal mass

56

Plastics def:

Synthetic or semisynthetic material this is made of mold able polymers
Derived from petroleum

57

Plastic can be divided into 2 groups

Thermo plastics- can be reheated and reshape do


Thermosetting plastics-use heat to form so reheating will breakdown

58

Industry is the _____leading consumer of plastics

2nd

59

Plastic characteristics

Melts at low temps and emits very explosive gases

60

Carbon Fiber reinforced polymer CFRP

Strong
Expensive-not used
Initially strong until fibers are exposed to flame
Release microscopic carbon particles that can burn
Fucks up circuits