Flashcards in Chapter 5 Hybrid, Era, Use, Type, Size Deck (29):
Combines two or more NFPA Types in construction
May have occupancy separation by use of a fire barrier or not if it is sprinklered
Two types of hybrid construction that are in use and not well documented are:
LST and CLT in place of steel
What 4 ways does the Author think we should classify buildings
Era refers to_______, not _______
Not age which means degradation
What are the 4 ERAs of Buildings?
Pre WWI-Historical, pre 1914
Pre WWII-Industrial-pre 1939
Post WWII-Legacy- after 1945
Engineered Lightweight-no dividing line
In a pre WWI building, how should you engage a fire?
Prevent spread in halls and stairwells first and look for undetected fires in combustible voids
In a pre WWI bldg, if the floors sag and the walls move out
Watch out for collapse from lack of fire cut beams
What's the problem with historical bldgs that are registered?
May use inferior material to be historically accurate, mortar, iron columns, etc
What is a spreader?
Tie plate in the shape of a star possibly that ties two walls together with a turnbuckle
What is an anchor?
An anchor hold in a fire cut beam from slipping out of it's Let. Also called Rafter tie plates
What 2 forces came into play to change buildings in the industrial pre WWII era?
Standardized building codes
Industrial Pre WWII building Fire spread issues
Open stairwells and central hallways-
Void spaces-knee walls,
Biggest achievement for Pre WWII era bldgs?
Use of steel for trusses, large spans
What type of construction is the classic Surburban strip mall?
Legacy Type III
Name a Type IV legacy
Ha. Not one. Dick
Why? No more use of heavy timber
Which type of building is arguably the most FF friendly?
Legacy for FPS and collapse
Collapse issues for Legacy Bldgs
Change of occupancy
Overloading is cumulative, AC, new roof, ADA, etc....
What is the weak point in a legacy bldg
The Roof after being replaced or repaired
Where did ELW first appear?
Roof assemblies in the 60's and 70's of Legacy era bldgs
The intended use or purpose for a Bldg is it's
What should be used in the size up sometimes?
Brief occupancy use description
Determining the Type can help determine:(3)
The relevant strength
The amount of time available for interior operations
The length of time a building will resist the effects of heat and fire
6 ways that the size can be misinterpreted
Number of floors above
Size of fire
Big Box refers to
Large fire loads
Mega Box refers to
Big hotels, mammoth proportions,
High Rise, for this book
What type of building is responsible for the most civilian and FF deaths?
What are 3 primary factors that can hinder a size up of a commercial building
Lack of people after hours