Chapter 5 Hybrid, Era, Use, Type, Size Flashcards Preview

The Art Of Reading Buildings > Chapter 5 Hybrid, Era, Use, Type, Size > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Hybrid, Era, Use, Type, Size Deck (29):
1

Hybrid building

Combines two or more NFPA Types in construction
May have occupancy separation by use of a fire barrier or not if it is sprinklered

2

Two types of hybrid construction that are in use and not well documented are:

LST and CLT in place of steel

3

What 4 ways does the Author think we should classify buildings

Era
Use
Type
Size

4

Era refers to_______, not _______

When built
Not age which means degradation

5

What are the 4 ERAs of Buildings?

Pre WWI-Historical, pre 1914

Pre WWII-Industrial-pre 1939

Post WWII-Legacy- after 1945

Engineered Lightweight-no dividing line

6

In a pre WWI building, how should you engage a fire?

Prevent spread in halls and stairwells first and look for undetected fires in combustible voids

7

In a pre WWI bldg, if the floors sag and the walls move out

Watch out for collapse from lack of fire cut beams

8

What's the problem with historical bldgs that are registered?

May use inferior material to be historically accurate, mortar, iron columns, etc

9

What is a spreader?

Tie plate in the shape of a star possibly that ties two walls together with a turnbuckle

10

What is an anchor?

An anchor hold in a fire cut beam from slipping out of it's Let. Also called Rafter tie plates

11

What 2 forces came into play to change buildings in the industrial pre WWII era?

Engineering
Standardized building codes

12

Industrial Pre WWII building Fire spread issues

Open stairwells and central hallways-
Utility chases-shafts,
Void spaces-knee walls,
Dropped ceilings

13

Biggest achievement for Pre WWII era bldgs?

Use of steel for trusses, large spans

14

What type of construction is the classic Surburban strip mall?

Legacy Type III

15

Name a Type IV legacy

Ha. Not one. Dick
Why? No more use of heavy timber

16

Which type of building is arguably the most FF friendly?

Legacy for FPS and collapse

17

Collapse issues for Legacy Bldgs

Open spans
Change of occupancy
Overloading-attics storage
Overloading is cumulative, AC, new roof, ADA, etc....
Age

18

What is the weak point in a legacy bldg

The Roof after being replaced or repaired

19

Where did ELW first appear?

Roof assemblies in the 60's and 70's of Legacy era bldgs

20

The intended use or purpose for a Bldg is it's

Occupancy

21

What should be used in the size up sometimes?

Brief occupancy use description

22

Determining the Type can help determine:(3)

The relevant strength
The amount of time available for interior operations
The length of time a building will resist the effects of heat and fire

23

6 ways that the size can be misinterpreted

Perception
Footprint
Interior arrangement
Number of floors above
Resources
Size of fire

24

Big Box refers to

Large fire loads
Lowes, Walmart,etc...
Aircraft hangers
Movie theatres

25

Mega Box refers to

Big hotels, mammoth proportions,
MGM grand
Mega malls
Airport terminals

26

High Rise, for this book

75 feet
7-8 floors

27

What type of building is responsible for the most civilian and FF deaths?

Residential

28

What are 3 primary factors that can hinder a size up of a commercial building

Size
Contents
Lack of people after hours

29

Name 3 items that can drastically change the size of a building but cannot be seen

Cellars
Basements
Underground parking