Chapter 4 NFPA Types Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 NFPA Types Deck (68):
1

3 step process to size up

Pre incident study
Pre fire familiarization
On scene and pre and post incident review

2

Initially, the author states to use these 4 ways to classify a structure

NFPA 220
Era
Occupancy
Size

3

Combustible

Will burn

4

Limited combustible

Have one half the heat potential of wood, no over 3500 but/lb

Douglas fir is 8400 but

5

Noncombustible

Will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when heated

6

FRR, Fire resistance rating

Length of time to burn through a given material

7

Flame spread rating

The length of time it takes to burn across the surface of a given material

8

Protected

Having an FRR of at least one 1 hour

9

Unprotected

A material that when exposed will cause degradation and effect structural integrity

10

Which type of buildings are not easily identified from the street?

Type I and Type II

11

4 ways to enclose steel in Type I

Concrete
Spray on
Gypsum
Special paint

12

The intumescent coating is

.5 in thick, will expand 15 to 30 times in a fire

13

Curtain wall construction can be of:

Glass, tile aluminum, slate, concrete,

14

How big is the gap on a curtain wall construction

3-4"

15

3 primary floor plans of Type I

Center core

Center Hallway

Combination of

16

First Interstate Fire

1988, 3 1/2 hours to control
Burned 45 min per floor
Lapping, curtain wall, have, poke throughs, and radiated heat all contributed to the problems

17

Primary hazard for Type 1

Contents

18

What's the main difference between Type I & II

The FRR ratings are much lower due to steel being unprotected

19

Primary hazard of Type II buildings

Contents and roof material

20

3 types of walls in Type II bldg

Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry
Tilt up/pre cast

21

What type of Wall is most susceptible to collapse

URM- not used anymore-can collapse outward, twice it's height

22

Hydra matic fire

Metal deck built up roof
Burned entire 1.5 million squ ft area

23

MGM

Extension of smoke through HVAC

24

Vacant warehouse in NV

Tilt wall gave out in 15 minutes

25

How high can a parapet wall extend

1'-8'

26

Pipe chase

Think stacked kitchens at apartments or kitchens below bathrooms

27

Scuppers can

Help show the actual roof behind a parapet wall.

28

Danger of UMC in Type III construction

Lack of Portland cement and rebar make the wall weak and unstable. Capped by capping stones that have lost their adhesion

29

Cornices on new Type III

In new Type III construction,nothing more then foam. Cannot support weight
Contributed to Monte Carlo hotel fire

30

Cornices on older Type III

Stronger than newer ones, but age has worn down the wood and metal. Still not safe

31

Type III facades

Can conceal hidden fire

32

Cugees fire

Blame it on layers of roofing being supported by wooden beams that were in lets that gave way

33

Type IV dean

Shall be that ext walls, and interior load bearing are approved non combustible and limited combustible. Other interior features can be of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces

34

Book defn of Type IV

Think masonry wall construction around heavy timber lumberyard

35

Type IV:

Factories, churches,warehouses, lodges
Large wooden members that are no longer cost effective

36

Requirements for heavy Timber

8" when supporting floors
not less than "6 wide and 8" deep for supporting ceiling
T & G of 3" thickness, 1" covering
Roof- 2" TG
Walls will have a FRR of no less than 2

37

Are Mills and Heavy Timber the same?

No, Mills were built before many of the Requirements were made, but they are similar

38

Type IV considerations

Renovations creates voids
Lack of sprinklers
Petroleum products on flooring
Fire cut floor beams and roof joists
Large fire load
Position away for collapse

39

4 types of Type V construction

Stacked log
Post and beam
Balloon
Western platform

40

Chinking is

Paste like filler used in log construction. Went away when builders started planing the logs

41

How can you spot a LW log construction

Look for log rafter tails only at the corners or at the gable ends with the eaves and soffits finished out like a typical wood frame

42

Main fire concern for log cabin

Interior geometry and contents


NOT the fact that it is wood

43

Girts and ribbon boards are also known as

Horizontal beams

44

Post and Beam

Pole barn construction
Uses mortises and tenons
Large open spaces

45

The mortise is the _______and the tenon is the_________

Cavity, projection

46

Fire spread concern for Post and Beam/Pole Barn?

Non finished open spaces creates a firestorm

47

Weak link in Post and Beam construction

Mortise and Tenon

48

Balloon Frame

No fire blocking
Continuous studs
Ribbon board on the exterior?

49

Bungalow construction

2 x4 rafters up to 3' apart

50

Visual cues of a Balloon frame construction

Old wood frame up to 3 stories
Old wood ship lap or asbestos siding
Visible 2x4 rafter tails
Windows line up

51

What is almost mandatory at a Balloon frame fire?

Vertical ventilation, when fire is in the voids

52

Balloon construction will give some warning before collapse with sagging however, watch out for

Roof collapse due to increased rafter spacing

53

How is Western Platform different from Balloon

Each floor is separate from the rest
Uses 2x4 or 2x 6 studs
Double plate at the ceiling

54

What are the two fire stopping elements of Western platform?

The double plate at the top
Fire blocking in the wall

55

What are the 3 types of Platform construction

Conventional 1800's- 1940

Legacy 1950's- present

Engineered

56

Conventional - Rough finish does what

Chars over and slows the burn rate down

57

Conventional platform features

Through connections
Solid wood-no trusses
Lathe and plaster
T and G flooring
Various roof coverings, osb, 1x6 boards, tar, slate

58

What are the fire concerns and collapse concerns of Conventional Platform?

The roof will char and slow down the burn, the contents are the main concern

Resistive to collapse due to compartmentalization, but attachments like decks are a killer

59

Legacy platform can have trusses as long as:

Solid wood
Nails all the way through

No EWP

60

Though Legacy Platform does not use EWP, how does it differ?

No longer using full dimensional lumber
Smooth lumber
Galvanized hangers
Plywood instead of T and G
Cross bracing gave way to plywood sheathing

61

How is fire concern for Legacy different from Conventional platform?

More opens spaces by design, split levels
Soffits on the underside of eaves and staircases

Split levels allow vertical travel of fire

62

Discuss Collapse concern for a legacy platform compared to a conventional

Higher surface to Mass ratio
Hangers fail sooner
Craftsman style trusses with solid wood

63

Engineered Wood Platform-lightweight issues

Reduced dimensional lumber
Glue for connection points
Geometry in place of mass

64

How long will Conventional/Legacy floors last in a fire?
Light weight construction?

15-20 minutes

5-7 minutes

65

"Truss space is like horizontal Balloon frame" describes

Lightweight engineered wood platform construction

66

House fire in Warwick, NJ

Lightweight construction and OSB sheathing

67

What does tan or brown smoke mean at LW construction?

Degradation of mass has already begun

68

What has had the greatest negative impact on structural integrity?

LW trusses