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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (62)
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1
Q

Atoms

A

The smallest representative particle of an element

2
Q

Subatomic particle

A

Atoms composed of even smaller particles

3
Q

Nucleus

A

The small positively charged center of an atom

4
Q

Protons

A

Positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus

5
Q

Neutrons

A

Neutral (uncharged) subatomic particles found in nucleus

6
Q

Electrons

A

Very small, negatively charged subatomic particles found in a diffuse layer surrounding the nucleus

7
Q

Atomic number

A

The number of protons in a nucleus

8
Q

Atomic mass unit (amu)

A

A unit used to express very small masses

9
Q

Isotopes

A

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

10
Q

Atomic weight (atomic mass)

A

The average atomic mass of an element

11
Q

Cation

A

A positively charged ion

12
Q

Anion

A

A negatively charged ion

13
Q

Electronic charge

A

The negative charge carried by an electron

14
Q

Compound

A

Pure substance that contains atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically bonded to each other
(Compounds form when the electrons in the atoms of two or more elements interact)

15
Q

Molecule

A

Group of atoms combined in definite proportions and held together by strong attractive forces called covalent chemical bonds

16
Q

Molecular compound

A

Composed of molecules that contain more that one type of atom

17
Q

Ionic compounds

A

Composed of ions and usually contain a metal and one or more nonmetals

18
Q

Ionic bond

A

Bond between oppositely charged ions

19
Q

Chemical formula

A

A shorthand notation that describes the types and relative numbers of each atom present in a pure substance

20
Q

Molecular formula

A

Chemical formula that tells the actual number of each type of atom in a molecule

21
Q

Empirical formula

A

Chemical formula that tells the smallest whole number ratio of each type of atom in a molecule

22
Q

Monoatomic ion

A

A charged species containing a single atom that has gained or lost electrons

23
Q

Polyatomic ion

A

Electrically charged group of two or more atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

24
Q

Oxyanions

A

Polyatomic anions containing one or more oxygens attached to a central atom

25
Q

Per

A

1 more O than the “ate” oxyanion

26
Q

Hypo

A

1 less O than the “ite” oxyanion

27
Q

Baking soda

A

Sodium bicarbonate

NaHCO3

28
Q

Table salt

A

Sodium chloride

NaCl

29
Q

Bleach

A

Sodium hypochlorite

NaClO or NaOCl

30
Q

Electromagnetic radiation

A

A form of energy with both electrical and magnetic components

31
Q

Wavelength

A

Distance between successive peaks

32
Q

Frequency

A

Number of complete wavelengths that pass a given point in 1 sec

33
Q

Bohr model

A

Model that explains the line spectra formed of atoms and ions with a single electron

34
Q

Quantum mechanical model

A

Matter (including and electron) has wave-like properties in addition to the expected particle-like properties

35
Q

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

A

You cannot know both the exact energy and exact location of an electron

36
Q

Wave function

A

A mathematical description of an allowed energy state (orbital) for an electron

37
Q

Electron density

A

Probability of finding an electron in a particular region of space

38
Q

Orbital

A

An allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom

39
Q

Principle quantum number(n)

A

Describes energy of the electron

40
Q

Azimuthal quantum number(l)

Angular momentum quantum number

A

Defines shape of orbital

41
Q

Ground state

A

Lowest energy state

42
Q

Excited state

A

Higher energy state

43
Q

Photon

A

A packet of light

44
Q

Magnetic quantum number (ml)

A

Describes orientation in space of the orbital

45
Q

Electron spin quantum number (ms)

A

Describe each electron found in an orbital

46
Q

Electron spin

A

Property of electrons that make it behave as if it were a tiny magnet spinning on its axis

47
Q

Shell

A

All orbitals with the same value of n

48
Q

Subshell

A

All orbitals with the same value of both n and l

49
Q

Pauli exclusion principle

A

Each electron in an atom must have a unique set of four quantum numbers n,l,ml,ms

50
Q

Aufbau principle

A

Electrons are placed in the lowest energy orbital available

51
Q

Hunds rule

A

If more than one orbital in a subshell is available electrons will first empty orbitals in that subshell first

52
Q

Electron configuration

A

Short hand notation is commonly used instead of an orbital diagram

53
Q

Transition metal ions

A

Form when electrons are lost from the parent atom

54
Q

Isoelectronic

A

Having same number of electrons

55
Q

Isoelectronic series

A

A group of atoms and ions with the same number of electrons

56
Q

Ionization energy

A

Minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of an isolated gaseous atom or ion

57
Q

Electron affinity

A

Energy charge that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom

58
Q

Electron affinity trends

A

Halogens have most negative electron affinities

Electron affinities become increasing negative moving from left toward the halogens

Electron affinities do no change significantly within a group

Noble gases will not accept another electron

59
Q

Metals

A

Shiny luster
Malleable and ductile
Good conductors of heat and electricity
Form cations

60
Q

Metallic character

A

Increases from top to bottom

Increases from right to left

61
Q

Law of conservation of mass (matter)

A

Matter cannot be created or destroyed

Total mass of substances present before and after a chemical reaction is constant

62
Q

Law of constant composition

A

A given compound always contains the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms