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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (18)
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1

Water is important because (5):

1. It expands by 9% when it freezes.

2. It is a polar molecule. While it does not have an electrical charge, it behaves as if it does.

3. It is a universal solvent. Given enough time, it will dissolve anything.

4. It is common on Earth in all three states - liquid, solid and gas.

5. It is essential for all life on Earth.

2

The biggest problem with water is (arguably) that...

it is not evenly distributed.

3

Uniformitarianism

The Earth formed and continues to form as the result of slow, consistent processes.

This principle also implies that the Earth is very old.

4

Catastrophism

The Earth formed and continues to form a the result of short catastrophic events.

This principle also implies that the Earth is not that old.

5

Actualism

The Earth formed and continues to form a the result of slow, consistent processes that are periodically interrupted by catastrophic events.

6

Hazard

something that can cause problems or harm.

7

Natural Hazard

Some natural place, event or process that can cause problems/harm.

8

Catastrophe

A place, event or process that has caused problems/harm.

A significant catastrophe may be called a disaster.

9

Hazard in British Columbia (steep mountainous terrain)

Steep mountainous terrain (avalanches/landslides)

Earthquakes (fault line locus)
A disaster/catastrophe happens when an avalanche occurs.

10

Exposure

Refers to the proximity someone or something has to a hazard.

11

Sensitivity

A measure of how someone or something may be affected by a particular hazard.

12

Vulnerability

A combination of exposure and sensitivity. It takes into account a person's or thing's proximity to a hazard and their ability to deal with it to determine what will happen when catastrophic event takes place.

13

British Columbia vs. El Salvador.

Hazard: mass wasting

For both these places mass wasting in the form of avalanches and flows is a significant hazard.

So both locations have a high degree of exposure. Sensitivity, however, is different. It is less in BC because we are aware of the hazard and can avoid it.

Sensitivity is higher in El Salvador because, despite awareness, steep terrain is harder to avoid. In El Salvador, there is less land - it is a small country - and land that is safer is often owned and/or controlled by others.

14

What to do about risk?

1. Avoid it
2. Accept it
3. Transfer it (insurance for example - you pay someone else to assume the risk)

15

Probability

The ability to predict something.

16

Probability and accuracy of prediction.

When creating a graph that compares flood frequency with size there is often more information on smaller more frequent floods.

What is absent is information of the rarer, potentially larger floods.

The ability then to predict larger, more catastrophic floods is suspect at best.

What's more is that when this larger, catastrophic event does occur, the prediction graph may ave to be re-written

17

Predictions

It is not possible to predict a natural catastrophe. Predictions are of more precise events such as a magnitude 7.0 earthquake on Vancouver Island the week of Jan 7 to 13, 2019.

18

Forecast

It is possible to forecast a natural catastrophe. These are more general statements about a situation such as "there will be an earthquake in British Columbia in the next 50 years".