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1

Research Methods

scientific procedures used to conduct research and develop knowledge

2

What are the 2 types of measurement?

Quantitative: numerical manipulation of observations that is generalizable
Qualitative: non-numerical observations of underlying meanings that are not generalizable

3

Objectivity

the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices influence findings

4

Verstehen

understanding the meaning of action from the actor's point of view

5

Epistemology

the nature of knowing

6

Empiricism

the idea that all knowledge originates from experience

7

Theory

set of observations that provide the basis for explanation of social phenomena

8

What are the steps of the scientific method?

1. decide topic
2. review lit.
3. develop hypothesis
4. select research design and collect data
5. analyze results
6. share and publish

9

Hypothesis

a statement on how variables relate

10

Variable

a characteristic or trait that can be measured

11

What are the 3 types of variables?

Independent: deliberately manipulated
Dependent: response to independent variable
Control: kept constant to accurately test the impact of the independent variable

12

Concept

abstract ideas that refer to objects, ideas, or behaviors

13

Operationalizing

turning abstract ideas into something measurable

14

Cross-sectional

event at a single point in time

15

Longitudinal

observation over a long time using a cohort

16

Cohort

specific group of people used in a study

17

Parameter

a number that describes a population

18

Statistic

a number that describes a sample

19

Bias

the likelihood that a non-representative sample may lead to inaccurate results

20

Survey

an investigation of opinions or behaviours of a group by asking them questions

21

Experiment

a method in which researchers control variable to test causes and effects

22

Participant Observation

when the researcher poses as a person who is normally in the environment

23

Case study

investigation on one person or event in detail

24

Ethnography

research method that aims to understand social perspective and cultural values by participating in and getting to know all activities in detail

25

Triangulation

using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon