Chapter 2: Ancient Near East Definitions/Photos Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Ancient Near East Definitions/Photos Deck (55):
1

Hierarchic Scale

Use of differences in size to indicate relative importance

2

Stele

Stone slab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs

3

Cuneifrom

Early form of writing with wedge shaped marks impression into the wet clay with a stylus

4

Stylus

Instrument with pointed end making a delicate line or scratch

5

Ziggurat

Ancient mesopotamia, tall stepped tower of earthen materials, often supporting a shrine

6

Votive Figure

Image created as devotional offering to deity

7

Inlay

To set pieces of material into a surface to form a design

8

Lost-Wax-Casting

Method of casting metal such as bronze

9

High Relief

Depends upon the extent of projection of the image of the background

10

Low Relief

Depends upon the extent of projection of the image of the background

11

Crenellation

Alternating high and low sections of a wall, giving a notched appearance and creating permanent defensive shields on top of fortified buildings

12

City - State

Has its own government, consists of a city and the area around it

13

Lapis Lazuli

Bright blue metamorphic rock consisting largely of lazurite, used for decoration an jewelry

14

Alabaster

Fine- grained, translucent form of gypsum (mineral), typically white, often carved into ornaments

15

Lyre

Greek string instruments .. looks like a harp

16

Diorite

Speckled, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting essentially of plagioclase, feldspar, and homblende or other mafic miners

17

Pleasure Garden

Open to public for recreation and entertainment

18

Gold Leaf

Very thin sheets of gold

19

The Epic of Gilgamesh

Earliest surviving great work of literature, from ancient mesopotamia

20

Inanna, Nanna, Anu, Ishtar

Sumerian God's

Inanna - Goddess of love, fertility, and warfare
Nanna - God of the moon
Anu - Sky god
Ishtar - Goddess of fertility, love, war, sex, and power

21

Enheduanna

Daughter of Sargon of Akkad, high priestess of the moon god Nanna

22

Hammurabi

6th king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, 1792-1750 BCE

23

Uruk

Ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia

24

Sir Leonard Woolley

British Archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia

25

Photo: Head of Woman

Uruk (present day Warka, Iraq) c. 3300-3000 BCE

-Could be attached to wooden head on full size wooden body
- Stripped of its original paint, wig, and the inlay set in for brows and eyes
- Shells for the whites of the eyes
- Lapis lazuli for pupils
Hair may have been gold

26

Photo: The ruins of Anu Ziggurat

3400-3200 BCE

- Sancturary (white temple)
- Altar
- Northwest terrace

Characteristics of the landscape:
- Flat Landscap
- produced by the overflow of the rivers

27

Photo: Carved Vessel

Uruk,c. 3300-3000 BCE


Organized into 3 registers or horizontal bands:

- Lower strip; sources of life in natural world, beginning with water and plants.
- Upper strip; alternating rams, and ewes march single file along solid grown in line
- Middle strip; naked men carry baskets of foodstuffs
- Top register; Goddess Inanna accepts an offering from 2 standing figures

- 2 men that face her are taught to be first naked priest or acolyte presenting an offering-filled basket, followed by partially preserved, ceremonially dressed figure of the priest king

28

Photo: Votive Figures

Square Temple Eshuanna, c. 2900-2600 BCE

- small votary statues dedicated to gods
- brows inlaid with shell, stone, or bitumen
- cylindrical male and female bodies with sturdy legs

29

Photo: Cylinder Seal Impression

Tomb of Queen Puabi. 2600-2500 BCE

- Replaced stamp seal
- Cylinders made of hard stone
- Banquet scene with women

30

Photo: Disk of Enhenduanna

2300-2275 BCE.

Excavated by Leonard Woolley at Ur in 1927

31

Phote: Head of Ruler

Nineveh. 2300-2200 BCE. Iraq musem, Baghdad.

- Earlistest known hollow-cast sculpture (lost-wax casting)
- Ryality indicated by heard and braided hair
- Beard and hair are also characteristics of ideal male
- Symbolic mutilation of ears and eyes

32

Photo: Stele of Naram-Sin

2254-2218 BCE

- Hierarchic scale
- Victorious akkadian ruler with horned helmet
- Handsome male form = mythical heroism and royal power (ancient mesopotamian culture)
- Native trees suggest real battle scene
- Small enemy figures
- Sun deities

33

Photo: The Lion Hunt

Assurnasirpal II, Kalhu. 875-860 BCE

- Low Relief
- Marks shift in Mesopotamian art for ".. a sense of timeless solemnity, and toward a more damatic, even emotional, movement witht he event portrayed.

34

Photo: Ceremonial Complex

518-460 BCE

- New capital of Darius I
- Multicultural stlyle combining many different traditions- Persian, median, mesopotamian, egyptian, and greek
- Assyrian platform
- Rectangular grid like Egyptian and Greek Cities

35

Photo: Ziggurat of the moon-god Nanna at Ur

2100 - 2050 BCE
- One site of earlier temple
- Mud brick faced with kin-dried brick and set with bitumen
- Rectangular base with 3 platforms and 3 flights of stairs
- Platform walls slop outwards
First 2 levels with retaining walls are recent reconstructions

36

Photo: The great Lyre with Bull's Head.

Royal tomb. Ur, c. 2600-2500 BCE

- Bull decorated with gold and lapis lazuli
- Front panel of sound box made of wood with shell inlaid in bitumen
- Lyres played at funerals
- Lyres buried on top of female musicians who played for funeral

37

Photo: Votive Statue of Gueda

2090 BCE. Musee du Louvre, Paris.

- Compact Stylized figure
- Emphasis on body's power centers: eyes, head, arms
- Cuneiform text on garment dedication of Gudea, the statue, and it's temple to Geshtinanna, divine poet and interpreter of dreams
- Water flows from vessel in two streams with fish
Eye concentrate on deity

38

Photo: Steele of Hammurabi

Sippar, c. 1792-1750 BCE

- Sun god and god of justice Shamash gives the law to king Hammurabi
- Shamash identified by sun rays, conical horned cap throne measuring rod and rope circle
- Laws engraved in cuneiform on stele
- Innovative regulation of laws and punishments

39

Photo: Lion Gate

Hattusha, c. 1400 BCE

- High relief guardian figures carved from the building stones of the wall
- Hittite capital
Lions project some difference from the background (high relief)

40

Photo: Reconstruction Drawing of the Citadel and Palace complex of Sargon II

Khorsabad Iraq, c. 721-706 BCE

- New Assyrian capital
- Sargon II lived and ruled from quarters atop 40 degree platform
- Gate guardian figures (lamassus)
Ziggurat

41

Photo: Assurbanipal and His Queen in the Garden

Nineveh, c. 647 BCE.

- Pleasure garden victory celebration
- Enemy's severed head hangs from tree

42

Photo: Nanna Ziggurat

Ur, c. 2100-2050 BCE

- Dedicated to moon god Nanna
- Created by king Urnammu

43

Photo: Assurnaspirpal II Killion Lions

Palace of Assurnaspirpal II, Kalhu,c. 8750860 BCE)

- Low Relief
- Marks shift in Mesopotamian art for ".. a sense of timeless solemnity, and toward a more damatic, even emotional, movement witht he event portrayed.

44

Naram Sin

ruled 2254-2218 BCE

- ruler of Akkadia
- First mesopotamian king know to have claimed divinity for himself

45

Sargon I

2232-2279 BCE

Ruled Akkadia after Naram-Sin

46

Assurnasipal II

883-859 BCE

- established capital at Khalu
- Created the Lions Gate

47

Neobuchadnezzar II

605-562 BCE

- most famous neobabylonian Ruler
- Suppression of the jews

48

Cyrus II

559-530 BCE

Ruler of persia

49

Darius I

521-486 BCE

Construction of Parsa (palace)

50

Xerxes I

485-465 BCE

Son of Darius I
- Made his own modifications to the palace after his father

51

Photo: Reconstruction Drawing of Citadel and Palace

Dur Sharukin
721-706 BCE

- new ass capital
- gate guardian figures
- ziggurat
- lived and ruled atop 40 deg plat

52

Photo: Reconstruction of Babylon in the 6th Century

- Ishtar Gate
- Blue glazed brick facing
- 4 Tower symbols of babylonian power
- Neobuchadnezzar II

53

Photo: Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall

- Babylon
- 575 BCE
- Coloured glass (lapis lazuli)

54

Photo: Arial view of the Ceremonial Complex, Persepolis

- Iran
- 518-460 BCE
- New capital of Darius I
- Multicultural Style
- Assyrian Platform
- Reconstruction grid like

55

Photo: Darius and Xerxes Recieving Tribute

- Stairway to Apadana
- Persepolis Iran
- 491-486 BCE