Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Chemistry Of Life Deck (21):
What is Matter?
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
What is an element?
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.
What are the subatomic particles? what charge do they have? Where are they found?
Protons - positive charge found in Nucleus
Neutrons - neutral charge found in Nucleus
Electrons - negative charge found in Nucleus
What do the protons in an atom determine?
What do the electrons in the atom determine?
The chemical behavior of an atom
What are the parts to an atom?
Nucleus- contains protons and neutrons
Electrons - rotate around the nucleus; forms a negative cloud.
What do the Neutrons in an atom determine?
What does the atomic number represent?
The number of protons. Found on the top left part of a subscript in periodic table.
What does the atomic mass represent?
The weight of an element (in AMU). Found in top right corner of a subscript in the periodic table.
What is an isotope?
Same element that have different number of neutrons.
There is usually a mixture in nature.
Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons
Carbon-13 has 6 protons and 7 neutrons
Carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons
Fun fact: if you want to know how old something is check for Carbon-14 ( it always wants to turn into a carbon-12)
How many electrons does the following orbitals hold?
a) 1st orbital
b) 2nd orbital
c) 3rd orbital
a) 2 electrons
b) 8 electrons
c) 8 electrons
What is the nucleus in an atom?
The part in the middle that has protons and neutrons.
What is the electron shell?
A grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom. The outer "rings" where the electrons orbit.
What are compounds?
A substance consisting of chemically combined atoms from two or more elements and present in a definite ratio.
Ex. Sugar (sucrose: C12H22O11), salt (NaCl), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), water (H2O)
What is a Covalent Bond?
The sharing of valence electrons by two atoms.
What is an Ionic Bond?
Where a valence electron is transferred to another element. (Causes the formation of a Bond because of the opposite charge of the two chemicals)
Ex. Salt Na ➡️ Cl (Sodium will give Chlorine an electron)
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
The attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom
What is a Nonpolar Covalent Bond?
When electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have he same electronegativity.
What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
When the electrons of the Bond are not shared equally. (When an atom is bonded to a more electronegative atoms)
What is an van der Waals interaction?
Individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together.
- if interactions occur simultaneously they are powerful. Ex. Gecko running up a wall.