Chapter 2 - Chemistry Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Chemistry Of Life Deck (21):
1

What is Matter?

Anything that takes up space and has mass.

2

What is an element?

A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.

3

What are the subatomic particles? what charge do they have? Where are they found?

Protons - positive charge found in Nucleus
Neutrons - neutral charge found in Nucleus
Electrons - negative charge found in Nucleus

4

What do the protons in an atom determine?

The element

5

What do the electrons in the atom determine?

The chemical behavior of an atom

6

What are the parts to an atom?

Nucleus- contains protons and neutrons

Electrons - rotate around the nucleus; forms a negative cloud.

7

What do the Neutrons in an atom determine?

Isotope

8

What does the atomic number represent?

The number of protons. Found on the top left part of a subscript in periodic table.

9

What does the atomic mass represent?

The weight of an element (in AMU). Found in top right corner of a subscript in the periodic table.

10

What is an isotope?

Same element that have different number of neutrons.

There is usually a mixture in nature.
Ex.
Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons
Carbon-13 has 6 protons and 7 neutrons
Carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons

Fun fact: if you want to know how old something is check for Carbon-14 ( it always wants to turn into a carbon-12)

11

How many electrons does the following orbitals hold?

a) 1st orbital
b) 2nd orbital
c) 3rd orbital

a) 2 electrons
b) 8 electrons
c) 8 electrons

12

What is the nucleus in an atom?

The part in the middle that has protons and neutrons.

13

What is the electron shell?

A grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom. The outer "rings" where the electrons orbit.

14

What are compounds?

A substance consisting of chemically combined atoms from two or more elements and present in a definite ratio.

Ex. Sugar (sucrose: C12H22O11), salt (NaCl), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), water (H2O)

15

What is a Covalent Bond?

The sharing of valence electrons by two atoms.

16

What is an Ionic Bond?

Where a valence electron is transferred to another element. (Causes the formation of a Bond because of the opposite charge of the two chemicals)

Ex. Salt Na ➡️ Cl (Sodium will give Chlorine an electron)

17

What is a Hydrogen Bond?

The attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom

18

What is a Nonpolar Covalent Bond?

When electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have he same electronegativity.

19

What is a Polar Covalent Bond?

When the electrons of the Bond are not shared equally. (When an atom is bonded to a more electronegative atoms)

20

What is an van der Waals interaction?

Individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together.

- if interactions occur simultaneously they are powerful. Ex. Gecko running up a wall.

21

What is a chemical reaction?

Putting two chemicals together and reacting them to get a product.