Chapter 5 - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Carbohydrates Deck (12):

Define: Macromolecules

Large molecules;

Four different types of macromolecules:
- Protein
- Carbs
- Lipids
- Nucleic Acids


Define: Monomers

Single molecules that serve as building blocks, but may also have a function individually.


Define: Polymers

A molecule made up of more than one monomer.


Describe the dehydration process.

It synthesizes polymers; to create a polymer H2O is released from the end so that the ends of a moniker and a polymer can combine. (OH and H combine)


Describe the process of hydrolysis

Hydrolysis breaks down a polymer; adds water molecules into a polymer to break it apart.


What are Carbohydrates? What is its function?

Sugars and polymer sugars

It serves as fuel and building material


What are Monosaccharides?

Single molecule sugar usually a multiple of CH2O

The most common monosaccharide is glucose; very important in the chemistry of life.

Monomers for carbohydrates


Define disaccharides

Consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycoside linkage. It happens by a bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.


Define Polysaccharides

Consists of two or more monosaccharides; they are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides

Two types: storage, and structural

Polymer for carbohydrates


What do storage polysaccharides do?

Storage: store sugars for later use

ex. Animals store glycogen, a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched. Vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells. Hydrolysis of glycogen will cause the release of glycogen when the demand for sugar increases


What do structural polysaccharides do?

Organisms build strong materials from structural polysaccharides.

Ex. The polysaccharide called cellulose is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells.


What does the suffix -ose refer to?

A sugar.