Chapter 4 - Carbon Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Carbon Deck (17):

What is a carbon and why is it important?

- Anything living has carbon in it.
- carbon is the backbone of life
- carbohydrates
- Lipids
- CO2


What are the different types of carbon bonds?

Single, double, and triple bonds. Organic molecules often have carbon skeletons.


What are isomers? How many types of structures are there?

- Same number of atoms
- Same elements
- Different structures will have different functions.


Structural isomer

Has the same number of atoms (might be a different form) (look at slide show)


What is the difference between a Cis and trans isomer?

Cis isomers have the "x's" on the same side of the isomer while a trans isomer has the "x's" on the opposite sides



Mirror images of an isomer. Same isomer but flipped (like left and right hand)


What are functional groups?

Chemical groups that effect the shape and function of a molecule


What is organic chemistry?

Historically compounds that contain carbon are said to be organic, and the study of them is organic chemistry.


What are the Big 7 functional groups?

- Hydroxyl
- Carbonyl
- Carboxyl
- Amino or Amine
- Sulfhydryl
- Phosphate
- Methyl


How do you determine a Hydroxyl group? And what are their functional properties?

When OH is attached to a molecule, it turns to alcohol usually ends in -ol.

Is polar; because it's electrons spend more time near the oxygen atom.
Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping compounds such as sugars


How do you determine a Amino or Amine group? What are their functional properties?

Acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution

Usually Found when a molecule has an "N" attached.


How do you determine a Carbonyl group? And what is their functional properties?

Usually found when you find a double Bond between a carbon atom and an oxygen atom.

A ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
Found in sugars giving rise ton two major groups of sugars: ketoses and aldoses


How do you determine a Carboxyl group? And what are their functional properties?

Found when there is a double Bond between an oxygen atom and a carbon atom and a single bond between a carbon and a hydroxyl group.

Acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the Covalent Bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar.


How do you determine a sulfhydryl group? And what are their functional properties?

When you find a SH in a molecule

Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a Covalent Bond. This "cross-linking" helps stabilize protein structure.
Cross linking of cute ones I hair proteins maintains the curl ones or straightness of hair. Straight hair can be "permanently"curled by shaping it around Culver's and then breaking and re-forming the cross linking bonds.


How do you determine a phosphate group? And what are their functional properties?

When you find a "P" in a molecule with one double bonded oxygen and two - charged oxygens

Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part.


How do you determine a Methyl group? And what are their functional properties?

When you find a CH3 in a molecule.

Addition of a Methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes.
Arrangement of Methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.


What is a hydrocarbon?

Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.