Chapter 9 - Cellular Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Cellular Respiration Deck (16):

What is the redox reaction? And what types are there?

It's when there is a transfer of 1 or more electrons from one reactan to another.

There could be oxidation (loss of electron) and reduction (addition of an electron.


What is glycolysis?

It is the first process to cellular respiration. Using a sugar molecule it will break down to make 2 pyruvate molecules used later in the cellular respiration process.


What are the inputs to glycolysis?

1 ATP in step 1
1 more ATP in step 3
2 NAD+ molecules in step 6
2 ADP in step 7
2 more ADP in step 10


What are the out puts in glycolysis?

2 NADH and 2H+ in step 6
2 ATP in step 7
2 H2O molecules in step 9
2 ATP in step 10
2 pyruvate will come as an output also


Why is there always 2 pyruvate as an output in glycolysis?

Because after Aldolase happens the molecule is split into 2 different 3 carbon molecules which will later become 2 pyruvate through multiple reactions.


What is the oxidation of pyruvate and what is the process?

The oxidation of pyruvate is necessary to create acetyl CoA which is vital to the citric acid cycle.

Pyruvate will enter into the mitochondria through a transport protein. It will release a CO2 molecule.

NAD+ will then react and make energy that is stored as NADH

Coenzyme A (sulfur-containing compound from vitamin B) is attached and forms Acetyl CoA


What are all of the inputs to the citric acid cycle?

Acetyl CoA will react with oxaloacetate (created after step 8; will start the cycle over again) in step 1
-NAD+ in step 3
-NAD+ in step 4 (after CO2 is released)(also CoA-SH)
-phosphate molecule combines in step 5 (with GDP to create GTP and ADP will then react to make ATP)
-FAD comes in step 6
-another NAD+ will come in step 8


What are all of the outputs to the citric acid cycle?

-CoA-SH in step 1
-NADH + a H+ molecule in step 3 also CO2 is released
-CO2 in step 4 and NADH + a H+ molecule
-ATP in step 5 (with CoA-SH)
-FADH2 in step 6
- NADH + a H+ molecule in step 8


What is the function of the of the citric acid cycle?

It is a metabolic furnace that will oxidize organic fuel that come from pyruvate.


What is the Oxidative Phosphorylation process (electron transport chain drives it)?

Through 4 different proteins electrons are transported down a chain and pumps H+ molecules out of the cell through the membrane. Later through Chemiosmosis The H+ molecules will be used to make ATP usually creating about 26 to 28 ATP.


What happens in oxidative phosphorylation?

An NADH comes into protein 1 carrying electrons from food. The H+ electrons will transport down the chain and released into the intermembrane space. NAD+ will be an output.
- FADH2 come into protein 2 and it will take 2 H+ electrons out of it. This will create FAD out of FADH2.
- the 2 electrons (originally from NADH or FADH2) will react with 2 H+ molecules + 1/2O2 molecules to make H2O.
-then protein 4 will act as a rotor pump and pump H+ molecules back into the mitochondria and react with ADP to create ATP.


What results from all of the processes of cellular respiration?

30 to 32 ATP are created

Its overall function is to harvest the energy of glucose for ATP synthesis.


What are the two types of anaerobic respiration?

Alcohol fermentation and the lactic acid fermentation.


How does the anaerobic respiration happen?

When there is not enough oxygen or when and organism doesn't need as much energy it will go into two different fermentation processes.


What is the alcohol fermentation and how is it produced?

2 pyruvate molecules will release 2 CO2 molecules to create 2 Acetaldehyde.

It will react with 2 NADH + 2 H+ molecules to create 2 ethanol molecules. This helps to creat more NAD+ to use in glycolysis.


What is lactic acid fermentation and how is it made?

Unlike alcohol fermentation lactic acid fermentation will use 2 pyruvate molecules without releasing CO2.

They will react with 2 NADH + 2 H+ molecules and creat 2 Lactate molecules. This also helps to creat more NAD+ to be used in glycolysis. Lactate is stored in muscles. After workouts when we feel soar that is because of the lactate molecule created.