Flashcards in Chapter 6 - The Cell Deck (22):
What is a light microscopy?
Objective made of glass lenses
Can resolve detail to 200 nanometers
Magnifies 1000x actual size
What is the electron microscopy?
Uses focused beams of electrons
Theoretically can reach resolution of 0.002nm
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (is especially useful for detailed study of the topography of a specimen.)
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) (used to study the internal structure of cells)
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Usually a bacteria
Does not have a nucleus but has a nucleoid. (You can usually tell the difference by the presence of a nucleus.)
What is a eukaryotic cell?
Animal cells and plant cells
What are the parts to a animal cell?
- rough ER
- smooth ER
Cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer)
Explain the Nucleus and it's functions.
Contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
Houses the chromosomes
Usually the most obvious organelle due to size and shape.
Surrounded by nuclear envelope
Nucleolus (deeper inside the nucleus) more dense, don't really know what goes on inside.
Explain the ribosomes and it's functions
Made up of ribosomal RNA and protein
Carries out protein synthesis
Cells that have high rates of protein synthesis have large numbers of ribosomes
Explain the Endoplasmic reticulum and it's functions. What are the two parts?
Network of membranous sacs and tubes; folded membranes; connected to nuclear envelope
What is the function of the Rough ER?
Synthesis of proteins (creates proteins)
Secrets in vesicles (releases it out to the cell)
What is the function of the smooth ER?
(Has no ribosomes)
Synthesis of lipids
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Explain the Golgi Apparatus and it's function.
Receives vesicles from ER
Stores, sorts, modifies, and ships out proteins.
Made up of flattened membranous Ava called cisternae
Cis face - receives side of Golgi apparatus
Trans face - shipping side
Explain a lysosomes and it's functions.
Obtains hydrolysis enzymes
Digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules
Works best in acidic environment
Phagocytosis - digest for food (I.e. Amoebas engulfs other Protists)
Autophagy - recycle cell's own organic material
Explain the mitochondria and it's functions.
Outer membrane is smooth
Inner membrane is folded into cristae
Inter membrane space - space between the two membranes
Matrix - space enclosed by inner membrane
Contains mitochondrial DNA - circular DNA
Location of cell respiration
Where ATP comes from
Explain peroxisomes and it's functions
Specialized metabolic compartment bound by a single membrane
Contains enzymes that remove hydrogen from toxins
- H+O2 = H2O2
- contains an enzyme to change H2O2 into H2O and O2
Explain cytoskeleton and its functions
Support and motility
Microtubules (tubulin polymers) 25nm with 15nm lumen
Microfilaments (actin fibers) 7nm
Intermediate filaments 8-12nm
Reinforces cell shape; functions in cell movement; components are made of protein.
Explain microtubules and its functions
Hollow tubes - 13 columns of tubulin
Alpha - tubulin and beta - tubulin
Explain microfilaments and its functions
2 intertwined stands of actin
Maintains and changes cell shape
Several other cell functions
Explain intermediate filaments and its functions
Fibrous proteins supercooled into thicker cables
Also maintenance of cell shape
Anchor for nucleus and other organelles
Forms nuclear lamina
Plant cells consists of...
and basically the same things as an animal cell
Explain central vacuole and it's functions
Largest compartment in a plant cell
Allows plants to stay up straight
Contains "cell sap" repository for inorganic ions
Absorbs more water as plants get larger
Explain cell wall and its functions
Ridged wall protects the cell, maintains shape and prevents excess water uptake
Consists of microfilaments made of cellulose