Chapter 6 - The Cell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - The Cell Deck (22):

What is a light microscopy?

Uses light
Objective made of glass lenses
Can resolve detail to 200 nanometers
Magnifies 1000x actual size


What is the electron microscopy?

Uses focused beams of electrons
Theoretically can reach resolution of 0.002nm
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (is especially useful for detailed study of the topography of a specimen.)
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) (used to study the internal structure of cells)


What is a prokaryotic cell?

Single cell
Usually a bacteria
Does not have a nucleus but has a nucleoid. (You can usually tell the difference by the presence of a nucleus.)


What is a eukaryotic cell?

Animal cells and plant cells


What are the parts to a animal cell?

Endoplasmic reticulum
- rough ER
- smooth ER
Golgi apparatus
Intermediate filaments
Cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer)


Explain the Nucleus and it's functions.

Contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
Houses the chromosomes
Usually the most obvious organelle due to size and shape.
Surrounded by nuclear envelope
Nucleolus (deeper inside the nucleus) more dense, don't really know what goes on inside.


Explain the ribosomes and it's functions

Made up of ribosomal RNA and protein
Carries out protein synthesis
Cells that have high rates of protein synthesis have large numbers of ribosomes


Explain the Endoplasmic reticulum and it's functions. What are the two parts?

Network of membranous sacs and tubes; folded membranes; connected to nuclear envelope
Rough ER
Smooth ER


What is the function of the Rough ER?

Synthesis of proteins (creates proteins)
Packages proteins
Secrets in vesicles (releases it out to the cell)


What is the function of the smooth ER?

(Has no ribosomes)
Synthesis of lipids
Metabolism of carbohydrates


Explain the Golgi Apparatus and it's function.

Receives vesicles from ER
Stores, sorts, modifies, and ships out proteins.
Made up of flattened membranous Ava called cisternae
Cis face - receives side of Golgi apparatus
Trans face - shipping side


Explain a lysosomes and it's functions.

Membranous sac
Obtains hydrolysis enzymes
Digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules
Works best in acidic environment
Phagocytosis - digest for food (I.e. Amoebas engulfs other Protists)
Autophagy - recycle cell's own organic material


Explain the mitochondria and it's functions.

Outer membrane is smooth
Inner membrane is folded into cristae
Inter membrane space - space between the two membranes
Matrix - space enclosed by inner membrane
Contains mitochondrial DNA - circular DNA
Free ribosomes
Location of cell respiration
Where ATP comes from


Explain peroxisomes and it's functions

Specialized metabolic compartment bound by a single membrane
Contains enzymes that remove hydrogen from toxins
- H+O2 = H2O2
- contains an enzyme to change H2O2 into H2O and O2


Explain cytoskeleton and its functions

Support and motility
Motor proteins
Microtubules (tubulin polymers) 25nm with 15nm lumen
Microfilaments (actin fibers) 7nm
Intermediate filaments 8-12nm

Reinforces cell shape; functions in cell movement; components are made of protein.


Explain microtubules and its functions

Hollow tubes - 13 columns of tubulin
Alpha - tubulin and beta - tubulin
Cell shape
Cell motility
Chromosome movements
Organelle movements


Explain microfilaments and its functions

2 intertwined stands of actin
Maintains and changes cell shape
Muscle contraction
Several other cell functions


Explain intermediate filaments and its functions

Fibrous proteins supercooled into thicker cables
Also maintenance of cell shape
Anchor for nucleus and other organelles
Forms nuclear lamina


Plant cells consists of...

Centeral vacuole
Cell wall
and basically the same things as an animal cell


Explain central vacuole and it's functions

Largest compartment in a plant cell
Stores water
Stores ions
Allows plants to stay up straight
Contains "cell sap" repository for inorganic ions
Absorbs more water as plants get larger


Explain cell wall and its functions

Ridged wall protects the cell, maintains shape and prevents excess water uptake
Consists of microfilaments made of cellulose


Explain chloroplasts and its functions

Contains green pigment chlorophyll
Chlorophyll and some enzymes allow creation of sugars through photosynthesis