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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry For Biology Deck (41)
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Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

1

Energy

The capacity to cause change, or to move matter in a direction it would not move if left alone

2

What are the foundations of life?

Matter and energy

3

Atom

The smallest unit of matter that still retains all the properties of an element

4

Atomic structure

An atom is comprised of a nucleus which contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by an electron cloud occupied by electrons

5

Proton

A subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electric charge found in the nucleus of an atom

6

Electron

A subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge

7

Neutron

An electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electric charge) found in the nucleus of an atom

8

Mass number

The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

9

Atomic number

The number of protons in each atom of a particular element.

10

Molecule

A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

11

Elements

A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means. Scientists recognize 92 chemical elements occurring in nature

12

Compound

A substance containing two or meow elements in a fixed ratio

13

Solution

A liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances: a dissolving agent, the solvent, and a substance that is dissolved, the solute

14

Chemical Bonds

An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the prescience of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer shells.

15

Covalent bonds

An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons

16

Ionic Bonds

An attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges. The electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together.

17

What forms of energy are found in living things?

Light
Chemical
Mechanical
Electrical

18

Chemical reaction

A process leading to chemical changes in matter, involving the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds

19

Reactants

A starting material in a chemical reaction

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Product

An ending material in a chemical reaction

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Catalyst

A substance that can cause a chemical reaction without changing itself

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Enzymes

Catalysts in cells

23

Acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution

24

Base

A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution

25

Buffer

A chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions

26

Alkaline

Base; a chemical compound that releases OH- ions ions into a solution (or removes hydrogen ions from a solution)

27

pH

Potential Hydrogen- refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

28

pH Scale

A measure of relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). pH stands for Potential Hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

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Solvent

The dissolving agent in a solution

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Solute

A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (which is called a solvent) to form a solution

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Aqueous solution

A solution having water as the solvent

32

Cohesion

The attraction between molecules of the same kind

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Adhesion

The attraction between different kinds of molecules

34

Capillarity

The movement of water against gravity through narrow tubes

35

Evaporative cooling

Property if water whereby a body becomes cooler as water evaporates from it

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What are the properties of water?

It's polar
Hydrogen bonds
Slow to change temperature
Ice floats
Good at dissolving things

37

Polarity

Having unevenly distributed electrical charges

38

Polar compound

A compound that has unevenly distributed electrical charges

39

Isotope

A variant form of an atom. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons

40

Radioisotope

An isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy