Flashcards in Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry For Biology Deck (41)
Anything that occupies space and has mass
The capacity to cause change, or to move matter in a direction it would not move if left alone
What are the foundations of life?
Matter and energy
The smallest unit of matter that still retains all the properties of an element
An atom is comprised of a nucleus which contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by an electron cloud occupied by electrons
A subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electric charge found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge
An electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electric charge) found in the nucleus of an atom
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
The number of protons in each atom of a particular element.
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means. Scientists recognize 92 chemical elements occurring in nature
A substance containing two or meow elements in a fixed ratio
A liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances: a dissolving agent, the solvent, and a substance that is dissolved, the solute
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the prescience of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer shells.
An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons
An attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges. The electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together.
What forms of energy are found in living things?
A process leading to chemical changes in matter, involving the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds
A starting material in a chemical reaction
An ending material in a chemical reaction
A substance that can cause a chemical reaction without changing itself
Catalysts in cells
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution
A chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions
Base; a chemical compound that releases OH- ions ions into a solution (or removes hydrogen ions from a solution)
Potential Hydrogen- refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
A measure of relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). pH stands for Potential Hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
The dissolving agent in a solution
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (which is called a solvent) to form a solution
A solution having water as the solvent
The attraction between molecules of the same kind
The attraction between different kinds of molecules
The movement of water against gravity through narrow tubes
Property if water whereby a body becomes cooler as water evaporates from it
What are the properties of water?
Slow to change temperature
Good at dissolving things
Having unevenly distributed electrical charges
A compound that has unevenly distributed electrical charges
A variant form of an atom. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons