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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Homeostasis & Transport Deck (20)
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Diffusion

The spontaneous movement of particles of any kind Down a concentration gradient; that is movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated

1

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

2

Concentration gradient

An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance within a given region. Things tend to move down their concentration gradient.

3

Hypotonic

In comparing two solutions referring to the one with the lower concentration of solutes

4

Hypertonic

In comparing two solutions referring to the one with the greater concentration of solutes

5

Isotonic

Having the same solute concentration as another solution

6

Facilitated diffusion

The passage of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins

7

Ion channels

Proteins embedded in the cell membrane that carry ions across the cell membrane from areas of greater to lower concentration

8

Cytolysis

Bursting of a cell due to water pressure from within

9

Plasmolysis

Shrinkage of a cell due to water loss

10

Turgor pressure

Pressure of water against cell membrane and cell wall from within

11

Passive transport

Movement of materials across the cell membrane requiring NO CELL ENERGY, but using the energy of the moving molecules (as they try to spread out evenly/balance)

12

Active transport

The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against it's concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring the input of energy (often as ATP)

13

Entropy

A measure of disorder, or randomness. One form of entropy is heat, which is random molecular motion.

14

Endocytosis

Taking large molecules INTO a cell by forming a "pocket" vacuole around them

15

Exocytosis

Discharging cell wastes by the reverse of endocytosis

16

Phagocytosis

A type of endocytosis that involves taking in large SOLID particles

17

Pinocytosis

A type of endocytosis that involves taking in large liquids

18

Enzyme inhibitor

A chemical that interferes with an enzyme's activity by changing the enzyme's shape, either by plugging up the active site or by binding to another site on the enzyme

19

What are the three main kinds of work a cell performs?

Mechanical, transport, chemical