Flashcards in Chapter 4: A Tour Of The Cell Deck (26)
The theory that all living things are composed of cells no that all cells come from other cells
How are eukaryotic cells different from prokaryotic cells?
They have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
What is an organelle?
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell
What is a nucleus?
The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
What is the location and function of a cell's nucleus?
Located inside the nuclear membrane; genetic control center of a cell
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Produces the components or ribosomes
S: Made of DNA and proteins threadlike strands, chromatin = tangles chromosomes
F: controls how the cell forms and how the cell woks (directs all cell activity); hereditary information- determines all traits in cells and in organisms; humans have 46 chromosomes
F: makes ribosomes; cells involved in cell division
S: made of proteins and phospholipids; thin, flexible, porous (larger pores than cell membrane's)
F: controls what enters and exits the cell's nucleus
S: very thick fluid; mostly water, many solutes (amino acids, sugars, salt, minerals...)
F: circulate materials through the nucleus
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
S: made of proteins and phospholipids; thin, flexible, porous
F: controls what enters and leaves the cell
S: thick fluid; mostly water, many solutes (sugars, salts, amino acids, minerals...)
F: circulates materials within the cell
S: rod-shaped, peanut-shaped; double membrane - inner folded membrane (folds = christae)
F: releases energy for cell activity; "powerhouses", where cellular respiration happens
S: very tiny granules made of protein + RNA, NOT membrane-bound
F: "protein factories"- where proteins are made
S: network of double membranes extending through cytoplasm
F: passageway for materials to move from place to place in the cell; rough ER has ribosomes attatched; smooth ER has no ribosomes attatched (makes phospholipids)
S: stack of flattened sacs
F: active in secretion of materials -> forming, assembling, and packaging useful materials to be released from the cell to be used outside the cell (Golgi are very abundant in cells of glands - such as salivary glands...)
(Usually larger and more abundant in plant cells than in animal cells) S: surrounded by a single membrane, fluid filled - mostly water, many possible solutes
F: storage of water of variety of other materials (such as water-soluble pigments in plant cells)
S: network of microtubules + microfilaments; mostly made of proteins; microtubules - hollow, tubelike; microfilaments - fine threads, smaller than microtubules
F: support and give shape - especially in animal cells; help move materials...
Pair of structures near the nucleus in animals cells;
S: made of microtubules mostly
F: used in animal cell division
Are more common in animal cells than plant cells;
S: small, spherical-egg-shaped; contains enzymes that digest materials (esp. Proteins)
F: digest materials (esp. Proteins), destroy foreign "invaders", worn out cell parts, "suicide sacks"
Surrounds cell membrane of ALL plant cells; never part animal cells. NOT part of the "living material" in the plant cell;
S: thick, mostly cellulose, also pectin and lignin;
F: support the plant cell and give shape...
In cytoplasm of some PLANT cells;
Includes: chloroplasts, chromosplasts, leuvoplasts
S: spherical-egg-shaped; contains much chlorophyll and other enzymes...
F: photosynthesis - captures light energy... Makes glucose
Contain pigments other than chlorophyll
"Starch grains" - story starch, contain NO pigments