Chapter 4: A Tour Of The Cell Flashcards Preview

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Cell theory

The theory that all living things are composed of cells no that all cells come from other cells

1

How are eukaryotic cells different from prokaryotic cells?

They have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus

2

What is an organelle?

A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell

3

What is a nucleus?

The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell

4

What is the location and function of a cell's nucleus?

Located inside the nuclear membrane; genetic control center of a cell

5

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Produces the components or ribosomes

6

Chromosomes

S: Made of DNA and proteins threadlike strands, chromatin = tangles chromosomes
F: controls how the cell forms and how the cell woks (directs all cell activity); hereditary information- determines all traits in cells and in organisms; humans have 46 chromosomes

7

Nucleolus

S: granule
F: makes ribosomes; cells involved in cell division

8

Nuclear membrane

S: made of proteins and phospholipids; thin, flexible, porous (larger pores than cell membrane's)
F: controls what enters and exits the cell's nucleus

9

Nucleoplasm

S: very thick fluid; mostly water, many solutes (amino acids, sugars, salt, minerals...)
F: circulate materials through the nucleus

10

Cell membrane (plasma membrane)

S: made of proteins and phospholipids; thin, flexible, porous
F: controls what enters and leaves the cell

11

Cytoplasm (cytosol)

S: thick fluid; mostly water, many solutes (sugars, salts, amino acids, minerals...)
F: circulates materials within the cell

12

Mitochondria

S: rod-shaped, peanut-shaped; double membrane - inner folded membrane (folds = christae)
F: releases energy for cell activity; "powerhouses", where cellular respiration happens

13

Ribosomes

S: very tiny granules made of protein + RNA, NOT membrane-bound
F: "protein factories"- where proteins are made

14

Endoplasmic reticulum

S: network of double membranes extending through cytoplasm
F: passageway for materials to move from place to place in the cell; rough ER has ribosomes attatched; smooth ER has no ribosomes attatched (makes phospholipids)

15

Golgi apparatus

S: stack of flattened sacs
F: active in secretion of materials -> forming, assembling, and packaging useful materials to be released from the cell to be used outside the cell (Golgi are very abundant in cells of glands - such as salivary glands...)

16

Vacuoles

(Usually larger and more abundant in plant cells than in animal cells) S: surrounded by a single membrane, fluid filled - mostly water, many possible solutes
F: storage of water of variety of other materials (such as water-soluble pigments in plant cells)

17

Cytoskeleton

S: network of microtubules + microfilaments; mostly made of proteins; microtubules - hollow, tubelike; microfilaments - fine threads, smaller than microtubules
F: support and give shape - especially in animal cells; help move materials...

18

Centrioles

Pair of structures near the nucleus in animals cells;
S: made of microtubules mostly
F: used in animal cell division

19

Lysosomes

Are more common in animal cells than plant cells;
S: small, spherical-egg-shaped; contains enzymes that digest materials (esp. Proteins)
F: digest materials (esp. Proteins), destroy foreign "invaders", worn out cell parts, "suicide sacks"

20

Cell wall

Surrounds cell membrane of ALL plant cells; never part animal cells. NOT part of the "living material" in the plant cell;
S: thick, mostly cellulose, also pectin and lignin;
F: support the plant cell and give shape...

21

Plastids

In cytoplasm of some PLANT cells;
Includes: chloroplasts, chromosplasts, leuvoplasts

22

Chloroplasts

S: spherical-egg-shaped; contains much chlorophyll and other enzymes...
F: photosynthesis - captures light energy... Makes glucose

23

Chromosplasts

Contain pigments other than chlorophyll

24

Leucoplasts

"Starch grains" - story starch, contain NO pigments

25

Cilia/Flagella

Extend through cell membrane to outside of cells
S: made of microtubules
F: used in cell movement; flagella are much thicker than flagella