Chapter 2 - Telecommunications and Network Security Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Telecommunications and Network Security Deck (157)
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31

Extranet

differs from a DMZ - it is made available to authenticated connections - where DMZ hosts publicly available resources that support unauthenticated connections.

32

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - automatically assigns IP addresses to workstations

33

RFC 3118

replaces normal DHCP messages with authenticated ones.

34

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol - exchange of control messages between hosts and gateways and is used for diagnostic tools such as ping and traceroute - can be leveraged for man-in-the-middle and denial-of-service attacks.

35

ping of death

An enormous number of operating systems would crash or become unstable upon receiving an ICMP eco greater than the legal packet limit of 65,536.

36

IGMP

Internet Group Management Protocol - manages multicasting groups. Version 1 - periodically sends queries to hosts, Version 2 - two types of queries: general and group-specific. Version 3 - specifies sources

37

RIP

Routing Information Protocol - dynamic routing designed for small networks - uses number of hops for best route less than or equal to 15 hops. cannot be used in a network with different subnet masks, exchange entire route table every 30 seconds, can't verify trustworthiness. Version 2 - allowed different subnet masks and RFC 2082 MD5 authentication.

38

VRRP

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol - supports automatic failover - appears as a physical router.

39

DNS

Domain named services - supports use and resolution of e-mail and WWW addresses. Prominent target of attacks. Port 53. RFC 882,1034, 1035

40

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - manages user information loosely based on X.500, front end. Uses backends like NIS, Active Directory, Java System directory. Weak authentication based on host name resolution. Port 389, RFC 1777. Clear text - easily intercepted. Deployment over SSL provides authentication, integrity, confidentiality.

41

NetBIOS

Network Basic Input Output System. Ports 137 and 138 (TCP) and 139 (UDP). 135 for remote procedure calls.

42

NIS and NIS +

network information service- manages user credentials

43

CIFS/SMB

common internet file system/ server message block - user level and tree level security - Windows

44

NFS

Network file system - file sharing UNIX

45

SMTP/ESMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol & Enhanced Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - used to route email, Port 25/TCP managed thru DNS using mail exchange records - robust, nonexistent authentication and lock of encryption. Enhanced version offers authentication mechanisms

46

FTP

File Transfer Protocol - publishing data over the Internet, Port 20 - data, Port 21 - control, RFC 959. Original clear text simple authentication. Secure FTP with TLS encrypts session RFC 4217; SFTP - not FTP but uses secure shell to transfer files - encrypts both commands and data

47

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol - Port 80 RFC 1945, 2109, 2616 - supports exchange of information in HTML - does not support encryption and fairly simple authentication.

48

SCADA

Supervisory Control Data Acquisition - systems designed to operate with several different communication methods including modems, WANS and various networking equipment.

49

Dual Homed Host

has two network interface cards - each on a separate network

50

Bastion Host

serves as a gateway between a trusted and untrusted network - central host to resist attack

51

Hubs

all connected devices will receive each other's broadcasts; single point of failure

52

Bridges

Layer 2 devices filter traffic based on MAC addresses. IEEE 802.11

53

Routers

read destination Layer 3 addresses

54

Twisted Pair

Cat 1 less than 1Mbps Cat 2 less than 4 Mbps Cat 3 16 Mbps Cat 4 20Mbps Cat 5 100 Mbps Cat 5e 1000 Mbps Cat 6 1000 Mbps Shielded and Unshielded - copper wires twisted together UTP does not require fixed spacing

55

Coaxial Cable

one thick conductor surrounded by a grounding braid of wire in a protective sheath - greater bandwidth and longer cable lengths, expensive and difficult to bend. Requires fixed spacing

56

Patch Panel

devices are connected to a patch panel instead of directly connecting to other devices

57

DSSS

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum - wireless technology spreads signal over a wider band

58

FHSS

Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum spreads signal over rapidly changing frequencies

59

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access - wireless mostly used for cellular technology. CDMA 200 - Rate of 153.6 Mbps.

60

GSM

Global Service for Mobile Communications most popular cellular technology