Flashcards in Chapter 2- Theories of Sexual Deviance Deck (23)
what are the 4 approaches that describe why/how sex offenders mature and develop differently from the rest of the population
psychiatric, social learning model, constitutional and sociobiological schools of thought
how does the social context play a role in social development
something important such as gender roles plays a very important role in outlining to a child what behaviours and roles are appropriate for their biological gender; this roles are learned from parents and society what is expected of them; it also gives them a sense of how the 2 sexes interaction and communicate with one another. ex. boys know not to kick a girl ; as children grow up they learn how to interact with members of the opposite sex in socially desirable ways
by what age are gender identities established?
by what age do kids understand that sexuality is part of their lives?
age 12 or 13
individual level explanation for sexual deviance
focuses on the individual. this approach mainly says that the person is respsonible; there is something inherently wrong with this persons brain that leads him to commit the crime. BOTH the psychological and psychiatric model say that the cause of most sex crimes, is inherent WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL.
what is the different between the psychological and psychiatric models of deviance?
psychological ones focus on personality and things that make up your personality and how these shape your behaviours whereas the psychiatric focuses on the individual and inner self; id/ego/superego and how these lead to deviant behaviour.
psychological model of deviance
focus on both individual as well as environmental influences on criminality. it also takes into account the mental processes that mediate between the indivdiual and environment [thought processes, cognition] ; these models outline the personality characteristics that are shown by offenders which if identified in time, could predict future criminal behaviour. psychological models focus on how these behaviours and tendencies are acquired, evoked, maintained or changed. look for root cause of antisocial behaviour FOCUS ON INDIVIDUALS PERSONALITY AND IDENTITY.
provide an example of the psychological model of deviance being used
profile developed by FBI to seperate offenders into organized vs. disorganized offenders ; main idea is that these offenders are likely to engage in similar types of crimes, and leave similar signatures and patterns in their crime scenes
psychiatric model of deviance
focus on exploration of the motivations and drives of offenders; start with assumption that everyone has the drive to fullfill their wishes, desires and urges. ex. sleep, eat, engage in sexual behaviour. drives are natural. according to freud, there are 3 parts that make up the human psyche and that control behaviour. is, ego, and superego.
id-unconscious/instinct/animal parts of you. impulsive and focuses on gaining desires
ego- protects person from impulses of the ID. while the ego recognizes that he/she wants what they want, they also realize there is a place and time for everything. conscious part of self that is able to delay GRATIFICATION.
superego- measures the social cost vs. benefit of engaging in certain activities. it is the mediator between the unconscious self and environment. tells the person what is appropriate and what isn't. most of the lessons that are learned are based on experience and perceptions of how the self would look relative to the environment.
believe that although the source of most personality disorders are within the individual, the environment may play a role and trigger a response; dont completely ignore environment.,
SUMMARY:sex offender has experienced some disruption in their individual personality and psychosocial development and the offender doesnt actually understand why they engage in these unacceptable behaviours.
psychiatrist tries to reach deep into individual to uncover the base reason for his.her behaviour. [root causes= unconscious]
social learning model
most popular model and most thoroughly researched;
proposes that ppl learn criminal acts and deeds and gain motivations for commiting these crimes from people and things around them. doesnt dismiss the genetic side- acknowledges that people may be wired differently but argues taht people themselves make the choice to engage in these deviant activities and are able to think about the pros/cons of their deeds.
this approach is diff b/c the environment is not applying a direct stimulus to the individual. its the persons perception that shapes behaviour and likelihood of engaging in these behaviours. therefore, the person who engages in a SC is b/c of their interests and gains [ex. sexual pleasure, control etc] and NOT innate desire gone "haywire" haha.
this learning model is split into 3 phases
which model is most popular for explaining deviance
social learning model
what is the most prominent social learning theory?
by alberta bandura;
research with aggressive kids, he found that people arent born with preformed ideas of agressive behaviour, they learn them.
describe the 3 phases of the learning model of deviance
acquisition: in this phase, the persons starts to gather others personality characteristics into his/her own personality via observational learning. ex. learn about how they should behave by checking their own impulse and comparing it to others. this is done passively, not actively.
instigation: propel a person into action [inc. biological and cognitive motivations]; instigation mechanism for violence is learned and not innate drive to inflict pain on others and its chanelled by different things; and the result is overt aggression. and the result is to medicate self after internal/external traumatic experience.
maintaining - these mechanisms are what keep the inappropriate or aggressive tendencies in the personal repretoire of individuals. seen from others that it leads to positive results - like sexual gratification for example.
describe the constitutional model of deviance
idea that individuals engage in crimes due to their genes - hereditary explanation;
evidence comes from research done between twins; these findings suggest that twins who have the same DNA are more likely to engage in familiar lifestyles [if in similar environment relative to twins who DONT share genes]
most popular constitutional criminologist
cesare lombroso; said there was a a relation between crime and heredity and that some men were born with inate desire to engage in life of crime; for these ppl. crime was a natural phenomenon. [atavists] ; also said that there were specific physical charactersitics which were unique to those criminals; ex. ayssmetrical face; receding forehead, more acute sense of touch on left side of body; greater insensibility towards pain etc.
relation between physical characteristics and crime
other theorists claim that certain biological factors determine the likelihodd that someone will egnage in a life of crime; so for ex. william sheldon related persons physical attributes to his/her personality. he called this somatyping.
william sheldon related persons physical attributes to his/her personality. he claimed to be able to describe three main body types: ENDOMORPH, ECTOMORPH, MESOMORPH.
one of william sheldon body types. this person is fat and soft. and his is jolly and gets along well with other ppl. least likely to get into trouble with law;
one of william sheldon body types.
this person is thin and fragile and introvert and afrid of ppl. unlikely to engage in criminal behaviour b/c has lack of self confidence and ability to sustain interpersonal relations w/ others
one of william sheldon body types.
main issue! atheletic and muscular ppl and craved adventure. ruthless, psychopathic and indifferent to pain.
edmund wilson; idea that biology does play a role in that it impact how ppl percieve the way they fit into their social surroundings. in this view: biology, environment and social learning are all facotrs that play a role.