Chapter 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab Deck (23):

What is Constitution ?

A nation's basic law. It creators political institutions or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens


What is the Declaration of Independence ?

The document approved by representation of the American colonies in 1776 that started their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence


What is Natural Rights ?

Rights inherent in humans beings, not depend on government, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English Philosopher John Locke's widely accepted among America's Founding Father


What is Consent of the governed ?

The Idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people


What is Limited government ?

The Idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights.


What is Articles of Confederation ?

The first constitution of the United States,adopted by congress in 1777 and enacted in1781. The articles established a national legislature, the continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures


What is Shay's Rebellion ?

A series of attack on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war captain Daniel shays to block foreclosure proceedings


What is U.S. Constitution ?

The document writen in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of U.S government and the task these institutions performs. It replaced the Articles of Confederation


What is the New Jersey Plan ?

The proposal at the constitutional convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the states's population


What is the Virginia Plan ?

The proposal at the constitutional convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that states's share of the U.S. population


What is the Connecticut Compromise ?

The compromise reached at the constitutional convention that established two houses of congress: the house of representatives,in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population , and the senate,in which each states has two representatives


What is Write of Habeas Corpus ?

A court requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.


What is Separation of Powers ?

A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custly.


What is checks and balance ?

Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different government institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another activities


What is republic ?

A form of government in which the peoples select representatives to govern them and make laws


What is a Federalists ?

Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time that states were contemplating its adoption


What is a anti-federalist ?

Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption


What is are federalist papers ?

A collection of 85 articles written by the alexander hamilton John Jay and James Madison under the name "publius" to defend the Constitution in detail


What is the Bill of rights ?

constitution, drafted in response concerns.The first amendment to the U.S.


What is Equal Rights Amendment ?

A constitutional amendment passed by congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any states on account of sex. the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislature


What is Marbury vs. Madison ?

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first arrested the rights of the supremes court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the court's power of judicial review over acts of congress, in this case the judiciary act of 1789.


What is the judicial review ?

The power of the courts to determine wether acts of congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution. Judicial review was established by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury V. Madison


What is factions ?

Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist paper NO. 10. Todays parties or in groups are what madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by factions