Chapter 2 - Wildlife Conservation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Wildlife Conservation Deck (33):

Define: Biomimetics

The study of living organisms so the knowledge gained can be applied to engineering or technological developments.


Define: Teratology

The study of the causes of birth defects.


Define: Indigenous Species

Species that are native to the area.


Define: Gene Pool

The total variety of different genes in all the members of a population.


Define: Valivov Centre

An area of the world, identified by the Russian zoologist Nikolai Valivov, where crop plants were first domesticated and where wild varieties are still found.


Define: CITES

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (of wild fauna and flora).


Define: Niche

The niche of a species is the role it plays in its habitat, which includes how it makes use of resources and responds t the other species in its habitat.


Define: Endemic

An endemic species is indigenous to a particular area and is not naturally found elsewhere.


Define: Wildlife and Countryside Act

A UK Act of Parliament that provides protection for many wildlife species and designated protected areas.


Define: SSSI

Site of Special Scientific Interest


Define: NNR

National Nature Reserve


Define: SPA

Special Protection Area


Define: SAC

Special Area of Conservation


Define: MNR

Marine Nature Reserve


Define: Ramsar Site

A wetland site designated to protect its biodiversity.


Define: International Whaling Commission

The IWC is an international organisation that aims to ensure the sustainable exploitation of whales.


Define: EU Common Fisheries Policy

The European Union agreement to manage fishing and aquaculture. It attempts to balance the needs of the Member States and their fishing industries with sustainable exploitation of the environment.


Define: Cryopreservation

The preservation of material by freezing, such as the freezing of semen for artificial insemination.


Define: Artificial Insemination

A form of selective breeding where semen is collected from a chosen make and is inserted artificially into the chosen female to cause her to become pregnant.


Define: Embryo Transfer

The transfer of fertilised eggs or embryos from a female or a rare species, into females of closely related more common species. This enables more young to be produced than could be achieved through normal breeding. It is also used in livestock breeding


Define: Micro-Propagation

A tissue culture method where large numbers of plants can be produced from a tissue sample from an original plant, without the need for seeds. The young plants may be raised on agar under sterile conditions.


Define: RSPB

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds


Define: ESS

Environmental Stewardship Scheme - An agri-environmental scheme where farmers receive payments for farm management practices that benefit wildlife and the environment. Higher payments are available for organic farms.


Why is wildlife conservation important?

- Knowledge and Understanding
> Human Behaviour (social structures)
> The interdependence of life on Earth
- Biomimetics
- Aesthetic and Recreation (ecotourism)
- Morals (wrong to kill unnecessarily)
- Ethics (LEDCs use wildlife as food)
- Medical Benefits (physiological research)


What are the ways in which humans threaten wildlife?

- Unsustainable exploitation for human gain (food, fashion)
- Pets and Entertainment
- Furniture and Ornaments
- Traditional Medicines (snakes believed cure arthritis)
- Eradication of predators and competitors
- Introduced Species (American Mink killed UK Water Voles)
- Disease (Malaria carried by Mosquitoes)
- Changes in Abiotic Factors
- Habitat Destruction


What type of human activities cause habitat destruction?

- Deforestation (create farmland/exploit timber)
- Flooding (reservoir construction)
- Mining
- Urbanisation


What are the different types of conservation methods used to conserve wildlife?

- Legal Protection
- Trade Controls (CITES)
- Banning damaging activities (Wildlife and Countryside Act)
- Designation of legally protected areas
- Sustainable management of exploitation (IWC/CFP)
- Captive breeding and release


What are the Appendices of CITES and what do they represent?

- Appendix I, species threatened with extinction are banned from trade (e.g. blue whale).
- Appendix II, species that may be threatened with extinction are traded with close control (e.g. polar bear).
- Appendix III, certain countries require assistance in protection of species (e.g. walrus in Canada).


What are the methods of increasing the success of captive breeding?

- Cryopreservation (egg, sperm and embryo storage)
- Artificial Insemination (semen inserted into chosen female)
- Embryo Transfer (transfer of embryos from female of rare species into female of closely related more common species)
- Micro-Propagation of plants (tissue sample produces large number of plants without needing seeds)


What are the problems with seed banks?

- Viability of seeds decline with increasing periods of storage
- Expensive to regularly germinate seeds
- Hard to store large seed e.g. coconuts
- Seeds with higher water content hard to store


What we the different types of conservation methods used to conserve habitats?

- Protected Areas (Land ownership/designation)
- Habitat Management
> Counteract undesirable change (e.g. coppicing)
> Provide suitable conditions for particular desired species
- Habitat Creation (e.g. reservoirs)


What are the problems of releasing captive-bred animals?

- May not recognise food species or poisonous foods
- May be poor hunters of unable to avoid predation
- No immunity to local diseases
- May not be accepted by indigenous population
- Specific behavioural patterns for survival not learnt
- Other species colonised and taken over niche


What are some of the features that can be provided to benefit particular species?

- Providing bird/bat nest boxes
- Stopping drainage to raise water table in wetland habitat
- Planting hedges (biological corridors)
- Uncultivated patches for skylarks to nest
- Nectar plants for butterflies
- Delaying mowing until wildflower seeds dispersed