Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Land Resources Deck (30):
Define: Honeypot Site
An area that is particularly attractive to visitors.
Define: Countryside Council for Wales
The equivalent organisation in Wales to Natural England.
Define: National Parks
Designated areas for informal public recreation, wildlife conversation and maintenance of the rural economy.
Define: National Park Authority (NPA)
The organisation that runs a National Park.
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Define: Heritage Coast
A coastline protected from development for its scenic or environmental value.
Define: National Trails
Long-Distance routes for walking, cycling and horse-riding.
Define: Long-Distance Footpaths
Long-distance routes for walkers, most of which are also National Trails.
Define: Country Park
An area of countryside managed for public enjoyment. Most are near urban areas and are run by local authorities.
Define: Urban Park
An area of semi-natural land in an urban area used for public resources and relaxation.
Define: Neptune Coastline Campaign
The National Trust campaign to buy and protect important coastline landscape.
Define: Green Belt
A designated area around an urban area to restrict urban expansion.
Define: Space Zoning
A method of avoiding land-use conflicts by allocating different areas to different uses.
Define: Time Zoning
A method of avoiding land-use conflicts by allowing different uses at different times.
Define: Leopold Matrix
A grid that is used to assess and compare the environmental impacts of proposed developments.
Environmental Impact Assessment
Cost Benefit Analysis
How can important landscape be protected for informal public recreation?
- Landscape Protection
> Conserving aesthetic appeal
- Landscape Enhancement
> Restoration and development of countryside features
> e.g. planting small woodland areas, replacing conifers
- Visitor Management
> Careful provision of facilities that do not damage character
> e.g. paths made of sand, signs made of rough wood
What are the aims of National Parks?
- Conserve/enhance natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage.
- Promote opportunities for understanding/enjoyment so special qualities.
- Maintain rural economy.
What are some of the controversial developments/proposals in National Parks?
- Military training
- Quarrying (china clay, limestone)
- Conifer plantation
- Tourism developments
- Energy (HEP stations, wind farm, nuclear power stations)
What are the conflicts of interest and competing of interests within National Parks?
- Erosion (cycling, horse riding, walking)
- Congestion (traffic increases pollution)
- Disturbance of Wildlife (trample vegetation, ground-nesting birds disturbed)
- Litter (wildlife injured, broken glass causes fires on sunny days)
- Displacement of Local Community (House prices increase)
- Conflicts between Recreational Users (quiet against loud activities)
What is the purpose of an AONB?
- Conserving and enhancing natural beauty
- More intensively used than National Parks (agriculture, rural industry, residential areas.
- E.g. Cotswolds
What is the purpose of a Heritage Coast?
- Protecting undeveloped coastlines from development for their scenic amenity value.
- E.g. North Northumberland
What is the purpose of National Trails?
- To establish public rights of way through landscape of great scenic value.
- E.g. Cleveland Way
What are the major causes of land-use conflict?
- Urban expansion (increase residential areas)
- Transport developments
> Road schemes (A34 Newbury Bypass)
> Proposed/Enlarged airports (Heathrow Terminal 5)
> Port developments (container port at Dibden Bay, Southampton)
- Mining/Quarrying (deposits destroy landscapes)
- Harnessing energy
> Wind farms (noisy, unattractive, habitat loss, bird deaths)
> HEP stations (unattractive, large in scale)
> Tidal barrages (change in water level, currents and turbidity)
- Recreation/Tourism (increasing number of people)
- Waste disposal (landfill sites take up land and release methane)
What are the methods of resolving land-use conflicts?
- Planning controls (development permitted if permission granted)
> National Parks (no new urban development permitted)
> Green Belts (planning permission not usually granted)
- Space zoning (different parts if an area to activities)
- Time zoning (different time periods to activities)
What are the aims of Green Belts?
- Protect surrounding countryside from encroachment
- Stop adjacent urban areas from merging to form conurbations
- Reduce congestion and loss of character
- Encourage urban regeneration of derelict 'brownfield' sites
What are the problems that Green Belts cause?
- Increasing price of land (developments expensive)
- Green space development (increase population density)
- New developments 'leapfrog' Green Belt and grow in nearby towns (increase travel)
What are the methods for assessing environmental impacts?
- Leopold Matrix (considering aspects separately rating them from 1 - 10 e.g. biological, physical and social)
- EIA (consider possible environmental impacts in planning process)
- CBA (giving financial value to all components of a development scheme)