Chapter 6 - Land Resources Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Land Resources Deck (30):

Define: Honeypot Site

An area that is particularly attractive to visitors.


Define: Countryside Council for Wales

The equivalent organisation in Wales to Natural England.


Define: National Parks

Designated areas for informal public recreation, wildlife conversation and maintenance of the rural economy.


Define: National Park Authority (NPA)

The organisation that runs a National Park.


Define: AONB

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.


Define: Heritage Coast

A coastline protected from development for its scenic or environmental value.


Define: National Trails

Long-Distance routes for walking, cycling and horse-riding.


Define: Long-Distance Footpaths

Long-distance routes for walkers, most of which are also National Trails.


Define: Country Park

An area of countryside managed for public enjoyment. Most are near urban areas and are run by local authorities.


Define: Urban Park

An area of semi-natural land in an urban area used for public resources and relaxation.


Define: Neptune Coastline Campaign

The National Trust campaign to buy and protect important coastline landscape.


Define: Green Belt

A designated area around an urban area to restrict urban expansion.


Define: Space Zoning

A method of avoiding land-use conflicts by allocating different areas to different uses.


Define: Time Zoning

A method of avoiding land-use conflicts by allowing different uses at different times.


Define: Leopold Matrix

A grid that is used to assess and compare the environmental impacts of proposed developments.


Define: EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment


Define: CBA

Cost Benefit Analysis


How can important landscape be protected for informal public recreation?

- Landscape Protection
> Conserving aesthetic appeal
- Landscape Enhancement
> Restoration and development of countryside features
> e.g. planting small woodland areas, replacing conifers
- Visitor Management
> Careful provision of facilities that do not damage character
> e.g. paths made of sand, signs made of rough wood


What are the aims of National Parks?

- Conserve/enhance natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage.
- Promote opportunities for understanding/enjoyment so special qualities.
- Maintain rural economy.


What are some of the controversial developments/proposals in National Parks?

- Military training
- Reservoirs
- Quarrying (china clay, limestone)
- Conifer plantation
- Tourism developments
- Energy (HEP stations, wind farm, nuclear power stations)


What are the conflicts of interest and competing of interests within National Parks?

- Erosion (cycling, horse riding, walking)
- Congestion (traffic increases pollution)
- Disturbance of Wildlife (trample vegetation, ground-nesting birds disturbed)
- Litter (wildlife injured, broken glass causes fires on sunny days)
- Displacement of Local Community (House prices increase)
- Conflicts between Recreational Users (quiet against loud activities)


What is the purpose of an AONB?

- Conserving and enhancing natural beauty
- More intensively used than National Parks (agriculture, rural industry, residential areas.
- E.g. Cotswolds


What is the purpose of a Heritage Coast?

- Protecting undeveloped coastlines from development for their scenic amenity value.
- E.g. North Northumberland


What is the purpose of National Trails?

- To establish public rights of way through landscape of great scenic value.
- E.g. Cleveland Way


What are the major causes of land-use conflict?

- Urban expansion (increase residential areas)
- Transport developments
> Road schemes (A34 Newbury Bypass)
> Proposed/Enlarged airports (Heathrow Terminal 5)
> Port developments (container port at Dibden Bay, Southampton)
- Mining/Quarrying (deposits destroy landscapes)
- Harnessing energy
> Wind farms (noisy, unattractive, habitat loss, bird deaths)
> HEP stations (unattractive, large in scale)
> Tidal barrages (change in water level, currents and turbidity)
- Recreation/Tourism (increasing number of people)
- Waste disposal (landfill sites take up land and release methane)


What are the methods of resolving land-use conflicts?

- Planning controls (development permitted if permission granted)
> National Parks (no new urban development permitted)
> Green Belts (planning permission not usually granted)
- Space zoning (different parts if an area to activities)
- Time zoning (different time periods to activities)


What are the aims of Green Belts?

- Protect surrounding countryside from encroachment
- Stop adjacent urban areas from merging to form conurbations
- Reduce congestion and loss of character
- Encourage urban regeneration of derelict 'brownfield' sites


What are the problems that Green Belts cause?

- Increasing price of land (developments expensive)
- Green space development (increase population density)
- New developments 'leapfrog' Green Belt and grow in nearby towns (increase travel)


What are the methods for assessing environmental impacts?

- Leopold Matrix (considering aspects separately rating them from 1 - 10 e.g. biological, physical and social)
- EIA (consider possible environmental impacts in planning process)
- CBA (giving financial value to all components of a development scheme)


What are the main stages in an EIA?

1) Description of proposal.
2) Description of environment.
3) Description of impacts of project on environment (Leopold Matrix).
4) Modifications that reduce environmental impact.
5) Possible alternative to proposal.
6) Non-technical summary.
7) Summary understood by public.