Chapter 4 - Conservation Abroad Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Conservation Abroad Deck (28):

Define: Species

A group of organisms that resemble each other more than other organisms and naturally interbreed to produce fertile offspring.


Define: Abiotic Factors

Physical factors such as light, temperature and water.


Define: Biotic Factors

Biological factors such as food and disease.


Define: Nutrient

Any chemical that is essential to an organisation for growth or for metabolic processes.


Define: Microclimate

A small area with a climate that is different from the surrounding area.


Define: Biomass

The total mass of living or recently living material in an area.


Define: Carbon Sequestration

Any process that is used to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, such as afforestation or underground storage.


Define: Slash and Burn Farming

Farming in a forest where a clearing is created by burning and is farmed for a few years until nutrient depletion and weed growth cause it to be abandoned, as a new clearing is created elsewhere.


Define: LEDCs

Less Economically Developed Countries


Define: CITES

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (of wild fauna and flora).


Define: Plankton

Organisms that drift in the surface layers of the sea or other water bodies.


Define: Symbiosis

A relationship between organisms of different species that live together. One benefits while the other species may benefit, be unaffected or suffer.


Define: No-Take Zone

An area where the catching or removal of species is banned e.g. areas where fishing is not allowed.


Define: Upwelling

An upwelling is where deep ocean water comes to the surface, often carrying nutrients and causing rich algal blooms.


Define: Albedo

A measure of the reflectivity of a surface. more reflectivity surfaces have higher albedos.


Define: UV Light

UV is short wavelength radiation emitted by the sun. Its energy can cause chemical reactions to take place, such as in the ozone layer or sunburn and DNA damage.


Define: British Antarctic Survey (BAS)

UK research organisation that operates in Antarctica.


Define: Antarctic Treaty

An international agreement to protect and manage Antarctica.


What resources do rainforests produce?

- Timber (construction of buildings/furniture)
- Fuel
- Plant foods (bananas, oranges, yams, grapefruit)
- Bushmeat (eaten by local population)
- Spices (pepper, cinnamon, turmeric)
- Palm leaves (roofing materials)
- Fibres (cellulose)
- Resins (incense)
- Palm oil
- Wax (polishing floors, cars, coating confectionery)


What is the importance of Tropical Rainforests?

- Rainforest resources
- Biodiversity
- Economic value of unexploited resources
- Carbon sequestration
- Rainfall
- Soil conservation


What are the threats to Tropical Rainforests?

- Fuelwood (unsustainable)
- Timber (construction/furniture)
- Agriculture (increasing supplies of food)
- Mineral extraction (deforestation for rich mineral deposits)
- Reservoirs (HEP schemes flood areas)
- Global climate change (rainfall less likely)


What are the conservation activities of rainforests?

- Debt-for-nature Swaps (giving money to cancel debt)
- Protected Areas
- Trade Controls (Limited trade from sustainably managed resources)


What are the abiotic conditions required by coral reefs?

- Warm temperatures (25-29 degrees)
- Bright sunlight (algal photosynthesis)
- Low turbidity (prevents physical damage)
- Constant salinity
- Hard substrate (polyp attachment)


What are the threats to coral reefs?

- Physical Damage (swimmers, boat anchors, litter)
- Souvenirs/Ornaments (tourist souvenirs)
- Sediments (kills polyps)
- Climate Change (polyps survive in narrow range of temperature)
- Pollution (oil, pesticides, cyanide)
- Fishing (overexploitation)
- Disease/Predation (Algae provide sugar for bacteria)


Where are the conservation methods for conserving coral reefs?

- Fixed mooring buoys (boats do not need anchors)
- Divers educated and trained (learn not to touch polyps)
- No-Take Zones (protect breeding population)
- Ecotourism (motivate conservation efforts)
- Control coastal developments (safe waste disposal)
- Control land activities (reduce soil erosion)
- Environmental protection (protect mangroves)


What are the unique features of Antarctica that makes it important?

- Ice regulates sea levels (store water on land)
- High albedo (reduce atmospheric heating)
- Krill faeces contain carbon (major carbon sink)


What are the threats to Antarctica?

- Global climate change (glacier movement towards sea)
- Ozone depletion (marine plankton decline)
- Tourism (waste disposal, oil spills, wildlife disturbance)
- Overfishing (foodwebs affected)
- Future mineral extraction (reserve depletion)
- Scientific research (building construction impact)


What are the main provisions of the Antarctic Treaty?

- Antarctica only used for peaceful purposes.
- Free exchange of scientific research.
- Nuclear explosions/radioactive waste banned.
- Commercial mineral exploitation banned.
- Living organism conservation.
- Tourism environmental impact monitored.