Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Conservation in the UK Deck (48):
A community of species that does not develop to a natural climax, but is maintained by external influences including human activities such as burning, grazing or ploughing.
Tourism intended to have low environmental impact, usually involving seeing wildlife.
Define: Natural England
The UK governmental organisation with responsibility for the conservation of wildlife and the landscape.
Local Nature Reserves
Define: National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act
The Uk law that enabled the establishment of National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and many public rights if way.
Define: Natura 2000
A network of protected sites in the EU that combine the SPAs and SACs set up under the birds and habitats directives.
Define: Species Recovery Programme
UK programme to help to increase the numbers of some endangered species.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
A measure of the variety and abundance of wildlife species.
Biodiversity Action Plan
Define: Convention on Biological Diversity 1992
International conference held in Brazil, often called the Rio Summit.
Define: Rio Summit
An alternative name for the Convention on Biological Diversity 1992.
Define: Forestry Commission
The UK government forestry organisation, which manages research, commercial timber production, learning and leisure.
World Wide Fund for Nature is an environmental campaigning and pressure group.
Define: National Trust
A UK charity that conserves historic buildings and important landscapes and habitats.
Friends of the Earth is an environmental pressure group.
An environmental pressure group.
What are the governmental organisations involved in conservation in the UK?
- Natural England (wildlife/landscape conservation)
> Species Recovery Programme
- Designated protected areas in the UK
> SSSI, NNR, LNR, MNR, SPA, SAC
> Natura 2000 (network of EU SPAs and SACs)
> Ramsar Sites
> Biodiversity Action Plan
> Agri-Environmental Schemes (ESS)
- The Forestry Commission
What are the voluntary organisations involved in conservation?
- WWF (environmental pressure group)
- RSPB (UK member of Birdlife International)
- National Trust (conserves historic buildings)
- FoE (environmental pressure group)
- Greenpeace (environmental pressure group)
- Marine Conservation Society
What are the aims and activities of Natural England?
- Healthy natural environment
- Enjoyment of natural environment
- Sustainable use of natural environment
- Secure environmental future
- Ecological research
- Providing advice and information
- Providing grants for conservation management
- Designation of protected areas
What is the purpose of an SSSI?
Identifies areas of particular interest because of their plants, animals or geological features.
- E.g. Exe Estuary, Devon
What is the purpose of an NNR?
To secure protection and management of the most important areas of wildlife habitat.
- E.g. Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire
What is the purpose of an LNR?
To protect areas from damaging activities in the reserve and surrounding land.
What is the purpose of an MNR?
To conserve and provide opportunities for the study of marine wildlife, geological and physiological features.
- E.g. Skomer Island
What is the purpose of a SPA?
To help protect and manage areas that are important for rare and vulnerable birds.
- E.g. Severn Estuary
What is the purpose of a SAC?
To provide rare and vulnerable wildlife and habitats with increased protection and management.
- E.g. Dartmoor
What are the global and local aims of DEFRA?
- Concern for climate change and energy
- Sustainable consumption and production
- Protection of natural resources and countryside
- Sustainable rural communities
- Sustainable farming and food sector (animal health and welfare)
What is the purpose of a Ramsar Site?
To protect wetlands of international importance and ensuring sustainable use of wetlands.
- E.g. Minsmere, Suffolk
What are the three main plans of the UK BAP?
- Species Action Plan (382 threatened species)
- Habitat Action Plan (28 habitats)
- Local Action Plan (individual counties)
What are the aims of the Environmental Stewardship Scheme?
- Conserve wildlife
- Maintain/enhance landscape quality
- Protect historic environments
- Promote public access and understanding
- Protect natural resources
What are the features of farm management that are awarded points in the ESS and the benefits of them?
- Hedgerow/Stone wall/Ditch management (maintain landscape)
- Field buffer strips (protect rivers)
- Wild bird seeds (winter bird food)
- Low input grasslands (protect wildflowers)
- Archaeological sites (protection)
- Reduce soil erosion (maintain production/protect rivers)
- In-field tree protection (wildlife habitat)
- Beetle banks (habitat for natural predators/reduce pesticide use)
What campaigns does WWF perform?
- Global climate change
- Endangered species (e.g. elephants)
- Waste disposal/Pollution
- Home energy conservation
- Food miles
What activities does the RSPB perform?
- Raising public awareness of environmental issues
- Lobbying industry and governments
- Research grants to fund conservation organisations
- Joint activities with other NGOs
What are the threatened habitats in the UK?
- Broadleaf Woodland
- The Broads
- Lowland Heathland
- Chalk Grassland
- Hay Meadows
- Upland Moorland
- Coasts and Estuaries
How have woodlands been traditionally managed?
- Mature Trees (Produce large timbers for housing)
- Coppicing (Cut to ground level every 7-12 years)
- Pollarding (Cut down to 1.8m to protect new growth from grazing)
Why are native woodlands important?
- Terrestrial habitat with high biodiversity
- Possible range of recreational activities
- Regulates water flow in catchment areas
- Trees reduce soil erosion
- Absorb carbon dioxide, limit global climate change
- Return water to atmosphere (evapotranspiration)
- Provide sustainable supply of fuel
- Timber (construction, tools, ship building)
What are the threats to wetlands?
- Drainage to produce productive farmland
- Urban expansions onto flood plains
- River straightening to reduce flooding risk
- Excessive recreation pressure
- Bank reinforcement to reduce flooding risk
- Pollution (industry, sewage and agriculture)
What are the threats to The Broads?
- Traditional crafts have declined (cutting reeds for roof thatching)
- Eutrophication decline natural foodwebs (growth of algae)
- Introduced species (Coypu damage banks and cause floods)
- Recreation pressure (litter, noise, trampling and fuel pollution)
- Global climate change cause flooding and saltwater incursions
What are the management strategies to prevent the threats to The Broads?
- Sediment removal (remove phosphates)
- Phosphate removal from liquid effluents
- Coypu eradication
- Reed bed clearance and the re-establishment of commercial reed cutting
- Bank protection
- Speed limits for boats
- Path maintenance
- Public education
What are the threats to Lowland Heathlands?
- Urban expansion
- Conifer plantations
- Golf courses
- Preventing the use of burning (used for management)
What are the two different types of hedgerow?
- Woodland Relic Hedges (rich in flora and fauna)
- Planted Hedges (provide barriers to keep livestock in)
What are the reasons for hedgerow loss?
- Increase in size of arable fields (easier use of machinery)
- Increase in farmable areas (food harvests)
- Road widening
- Replacement by fences
- Damage by vehicles
- Neglecting traditional managements
What are the threats to the environment through loss of hedgerows?
- Loss of wildlife
- Loss of habitats for predators that control pests
- Increased wind erosion in neighbouring fields
- Reduction of scenic quality of countryside
What are the threats to chalk grasslands?
- Intensive farming to substitute for fertile soil
- Use of fertilisers, pesticides and re-seeding
- Urban expansion
- Road building
- Abandonment of grazing leads to secondary succession
What are the threats to Moorlands?
- Conversion to 'improved' grassland
- Conifer afforestation
- Reservoir construction
- Abandonment of grazing leads to secondary succession
- Increased visitor pressure (Countryside and Rights of Way Act)
What are the abiotic factors in estuaries?
- Salinity (pure seawater to freshwater)
- Turbidity (clear water to water with fine suspended solids)
- Water flow rates (very slow movement to 10mph)
- Period of exposure to air
- Temperature fluctuations
- Substrate type (coarse gravel to fine clay)