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Flashcards in chapter 24 info neuropsych Deck (10):

learning disabilities

umbrella term for wide variety of disorders--dyslexia, aphasia


skills needed to read

letter identification, phonological skills, grapheme skills, sequencing skills, short term memory, lexicon (understanding of words)


causes of reading disabilities

phonological deficiency (impairments with sound awareness)
attention deficiency (attention can't be easily shifted, parietal lobe)
sensory deficiency (individuals with reading disabilities need longer interval between tones to discriminate them, remediation)
motor deficiency (cerebellar theory)
magnocellular theory (deficit in magnocellular part of visual system )


Neuropsychological evaluations

IQ tests (ACID profile-arithmatic, coding, info, digit span- mean 100), Kolb and Whishaw (dyslexics perfomr at chance on L/R differentiation tasks, verbal fluency static in dyslexics)



behavioral and learning disabilities, ADD (errors omission, stop paying attention), ADHD (commission, errors, going to town), hyperactive/restless, deficit in sustained attention, impulsive behavior, causes (brain damage, encephalitis, genetics, food, allergies, lead, environment) treatment (structured environ, remove distraction, drugs)


cerebral palsy

caused by brain trauma in fetal development/birth, motor abnormalities (spastic, athetoid, rigidity, atoxic), cognitive impairments



increased CSF volume from shrinking of brain tissue around ventricles, obstruction of flow of CSF results in expansion of ventricles, overproduction of CSF??, insert valve to drain fluid


autism spectrum disorder

kids without obvious focal cerebral disease, impaired social interactions, narrow interests, language and communication abnormalities, mild to severe symptoms-- persuasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified=children who do not meet autism criteria--autism=mostly boys, larger head and brain size, failure of von economo neurons to develop, brainstem abnormalities--asperbergers less severe/hyperplexia(development of reading abilities)--savant syndrome has narrow range of abilities retardation blindness and musical genuis


fragile X syndrom

facial abnormalities and mental retardation, more common and severe in men, attention deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, unstable moods, poorly formed dendritic spines, thin cortex, increase in ventricular size


fetal alcohol syndrome

physical malformation and mental retardation, 10% of moms drink heavily when pregnancy, small brain, abnormal gyri, abnormal cell clusters, learning disability, low IQ, hyperactivity, social problems