Flashcards in Chapter 27: Herpes Deck (21):
Define latency and reactivation and describe how it works in Herpes virus.
Latency is defined as a period in which the virus is dormant and inactive until reactivation.
Reactivation is resurgence of a virus due to a stressor. This can be stress itself, menstruation, anxiety, fever, sun exposure, low immune state, or chronic disease.
This is obvious in the Varicella-Zoster diseases.
In the latent phase the virus moves up the nerves to the sensory ganglia where they stay until activation.
What are the 7 types of Herpes simplex disorders?
2. Genital herpes
3. Herpetic keratitis
4. Neonatal herpes
5. Herpetic whitelow
6. Disseminated herpes
Which herpes simplex virus produces genital herpes?
Herpes simplex subtypes 1 and 2
so both. It's a trick question.
3 herpes viruses affect the head and face. What are they and what do they do?
Gingivostomastitis = painful swollen gums paired with systemic reactions like fever, headache and fatigue.
Herpetic keratitis = most common cause of corneal blindness
Encephalitis = infection and inflammation of the brain leading to fever and focal neurologic abnormalities
What is herpetic whitlow?
infection of the finger causing it to swell and become bright red and commonly seen in healthcare workers and continuously wearing gloves.
Who is most affected by disseminated herpes and what does it cause?
The immunocompromised are most affected because attacks on viruses require adequate cell-mediated responses.
This type of herpes leads to mucocutaneous infections leading to infection of the liver, lung and GI.
Describe genital herpes.
sexually transmitted disease that causes fever, headache, urethral discharge in males and females affected as well as enlarged lymph nodes and ulcers (painful or painless) at the inguinal region.
A mother is currently infected with herpes and has a child, what type of problems could occur during pregnancy and with the birth of the child?
The child, if born would have congenital herpes. Many children die intrauterine or are born with birth defects.
Being born through the birth canal with an active virus can lead to infection of the child.
Varicella-zoster is caused by the same virus, why are the manifestations so different?
The virus that causes varicella goes dormant and then reactivates after being stressed and this activation occurs while the virus is at sensory ganglion.
The initial infection of varicella starts with a general respiratory infection with fever, malaise and headache that leads to a rash that starts at face and spreads to trunk and extremities. Multiple crops at different times.
After dormancy = Zoster.
Zoster is a very painful disorder with skin lesions that follow a specific sensory dermatome usually around T5-6.
Which form of varicella-zoster is contagious?
Both are highly contagious. The virus is the same, so a person with zoster can give some one varicella/chicken pox.
What are some complications with the Herpes zoster?
The infection can lead to pneumonia and encephalitis
What are some key signs of cytomegalovirus?
The cells that are infected become swollen and can fuse to create multinucleated giant cells and there are intranuclear inclusion bodies.
What are the four states of cytomegalovirus?
Asymptomatic, congenital, mononuecleosis, and reactivation
One state of CMV is the most common cause of mental retardation. Which is it and what are the associated symptoms?
Congenital is the most common viral cause of mental retardation. It occurs when the mother has reactivation during the first trimester of a pregnancy.
It obviously leads to mental retardation, but it also causes microcephaly, deafness, seizures and other birth defects.
What age group gets mono and what other disease is it also very common to join?
Mono commonly affects young adults which is also seen in patients that have EBV.
Reactivation of CMV is mostly likely to occur with what population and what does it lead to?
Reactivation is most common in immunocompromised due to not being able to fight infections and it causes retinitis, pneumonia, disseminated infection and eventual death without proper treatment.
The exact presentation is dependent on the patient and the degree of compromise.
What are some main diagnostic practices for CMV?
There is a buffy white coat of white cells, CMV antigens present and you can reevaluate with PCR.
What major disorders are connected with EBV?
The virus is known to be associated with mononeucleosis, Burkitt lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancers.
What is Mononeucleosis?
It is a disorder that leads to fever, chills, sweats, headache, enlarged lymph nodes, and very bad and painful pharyngitis that can lead to enlarged spleen and high WBC and atypical lymphocytes.
What is a common way to test for Mono and how does it work?
Monostat is commonly used to check for Mono by looking at possible heterophile antibodies in the blood. The antibodies cause agglutination which can be recognized when mixed with sheep RBC