Chapter 29: other RNA viruses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 29: other RNA viruses Deck (35):
1

What are the Arboviruses?

These are arthropod borne viruses that include the togaviruses, bunyaviruses, flaviviruses.

2

What are the categories of togaviruses?

alpha viruses and rubivirus

3

What are the alpha viruses?

WEE, EEE, VEE and chikungunya virus which are named after where they are found and they cause encephalitis (not chikungunya most of the time).
this leads to headache, altered consciousness, and focal neurologic problems.
Chikungunya virus leads to fever, rash, joint pain followed by chronic arthritis.
They are all spread by mosquitos.

4

What is rubella what what family is it from?

Rubella is a disease that causes fever and flu-like symptoms as well as rash from the forehead down the trunk to the extremities.
It is also a part of TORCH meaning it can spread from mother to child through blood-placental barrier.
It is part of the Togaviruses.

5

What is one thing that sets rubivirus apart from the other togaviruses?

It does not have an insect vector

6

What are the diseases caused by flaviviruses?

yellow fever
dengue virus
St. louis and japaneses encephalitis
West Nile virus
Hepatitis C

7

What organs affected by congenital rubella?

Heart, eyes and CNS
leading to patent ductus, cataracts, mental retardation and deafness

8

What does yellow fever lead to?

It causes hepatits, fever, and backache.

9

What is bone break fever?

This is also called Dengue fever and it is caused by a flavivirus. The disorder causes painful fever, headache, muscle aches, joint aches, and back aches.

10

If Dengue fever persists what does it lead to?

IT can cause hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, and septic shock in a disease known as Dengue hemorrhagic fever

11

What is special about St. Louis encephalitis?

This is the second most common viral cause of encephalitis in the US.

12

What are the associated symptoms of West Nile?

Fever, headache, and possible maculopapular rash, before leading to weakness and difficulty concentrating. the elderly and immunocompromised are most likely to have neuroinvasive symptoms like encephalitis, myelitis, and meningitis

13

How do you diagnose West Nile?

1. Detection of virus by isolation through PCR
2. Serum IgM or IgG
3. CSF fluid IgM against WNV
4. fourfold rise in serum antibody titers

14

Bunyaviridae causes what three diseases?

California encephalitis and Rift valley fever as well as Hantavirus

15

What is the major difference between Rift valley and California encephalitis?

Rift valley can also lead to a hemorrhagic disorder.

16

What is Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?

This is an influenza like illness with fever, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting
Most commonly found in the four corners.
The damage commonly leads to pulmonary edema and respiratory failure in 40%
The original Hantavirus that is associated with Asia cause a hemorrhagic fever with renal failure.

17

Who should be considered most for Hantavirus?

Young adults that are in the area of the Four corners that have influenza-like symptoms with pulmonary edema.

18

What are the major groups of picornaviruses?

Enterovirus, rhinovirus, hepatovirus, and parechovirus.

19

What are the supgroups of enteroviruses?

poliovirus
coxsackie A
coxsackie B
Echovirus
New enteroviruses

20

What do enteroviruses affect and how are they spread?

Enteroviruses = intestinal epithelial cells and lymphoid tissue like Peyer's patches and they are excreted in feces and spread in the fecal-oral route with replication and shedding to GI from the tonsils.

21

what are the three disease manifestations of Polio?

Mild illness = asymptomatic or mild febrile viral illness which is most common in infants of underdeveloped nations.
Aseptic meningitis = fever and meningismus with quick recovery.
Paralytic poliiomyelitis = viral infection of the motor neurons of the anterior horn of spinal cords. Leads to peripheral neuron deficits.

22

compare and contrast Coxsackie A and B.

The each can be asymptomatic, mild febrile, cause respiratory symptoms, rashes, and aseptic meningitis. These are actually the most common causes of aseptic meningitis
A causes paralysis and necrosis of skeletal muscle.
Herpangina = small red vesicle over back of throat.
Hand, foot, mouth disease that causes oral vesicles and small tender lesions on hands feet and butt.
B is less severe but can affect heart, brain, liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle.
Pleurodynia = pleuritic pain with respiratory infection
Myo/pericarditis = arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

23

What are the two causes of the common cold?

Rhinovirus and coronavirus

24

What is SARS and how is it spread?

SARS stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome which is specifically from a coronavirus. Patients present with fevers, myalgias, chills and dry coughs. Leads to chest pain and difficult breathing caused by alveolar consolidation. This can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome which can lead to respiratory failure.

25

What RNA viruses cause diarrhea?

Caliciviruse, rotavirus, adenovirus, and astroviruses

26

Which two viruses are indistinguishable from each other besides the age of presentation?

Calicivirus and rotavirus
calici = young children and infants
Rotavirus = infects all ages but it is a major cause of infant mortality due to infectious diarrhea and dehydration.

27

What are the symptoms of Norwalk and Noroviruses and what are possible causes?

Norwalk and noroviruses both lead to infectious diarrhea but Norwalk is also associated with severe vomiting. The Noroviruses is spread by infected water sources in a selected population like on cruiseships or after environmental disasters.

28

what age groups are affected by astroviruses?

infants, children and elderly patients

29

What sets the morphology of Rhadboviruses apart from the other viruses?

It is bullet shaped.

30

What is the prodrome for rabies?

fever, headache, sore throat, fatigue, nausea and intense pain due to very sensitive nerves near bite wound.

31

What are the two types of encephalopathies in rabies?

Acute encephalitis = hyperactive and agitated states that lead to confusion, meningismus and seizures = madness
Classic brainstem encephalitis = cranial nerve dysfunctions leading to very painful swallowing = foaming at the mouth

32

What are the two main filoviruses?

Marburg and Ebola virus

33

What are Marburg and Ebola and example of?

They are examples of an acute viral hemorrhagic fever.
This disorder is heterogeneous in symptoms but usually includes fever, diarrhea, weakness, dysphagia, hiccups and bleeding from all mucous membranes.

34

What is the transmission of viral hemorrhagic fever?

Any direct contact with any bodily fluids of the living infected or of the deceased. Airborne transmission cannot be ruled out.
This means that the most common people infected are people in the healthcare industry.

35

What are the major potential bioweapons that cause hemorrhagic fever?

Filoviruses, arenaviruses, rift valley fever, and yellow fever virus.