Chapter 27 Toxicology COPY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Toxicology COPY Deck (117)
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1

1. A poison is a substance that is:
A) toxic by nature, no matter how it enters the body or in what quantities it is taken.
B) damaging to the tissues and cells, especially if injected or taken in large quantities.
C) legal or illegal, and has the potential of causing permanent damage if it is ingested.
D) capable of making a person ill, at a minimum, and has a great chance of causing death.

Ans: A
Page: 1325
Type: General Knowledge

2

2. A therapeutic dose of Valium simply relaxes one person, but causes severe central nervous system depression in another patient. This is an example of:
A) synergism.
B) potentiation.
C) hypersensitivity.
D) an idiosyncrasy.

Ans: D
Page: 1326
Type: General Knowledge

3

3. The bioavailability and excretion rate of a toxin are influenced by the:
A) amount of toxin and the relative speed at which it is metabolized.
B) type of toxin and the condition of the patient's underlying health.
C) route by which the toxin entered the body and the age of the patient.
D) the presence of other substances in the body at the time of exposure.

Ans: A
Page: 1327
Type: General Knowledge

4

4. Management for an ingested poison focuses mainly on:
A) the prompt induction of vomiting.
B) administering a counteracting agent.
C) neutralizing the poison in the stomach.
D) treating the systemic effects that result.

Ans: C
Page: 1327
Type: General Knowledge

5

5. When poisoning occurs because of a toxic environment:
A) the patient typically does not present with symptoms for hours.
B) you are more likely to encounter more than one patient at the scene.
C) you should limit your exposure to the environment to less than 5 minutes.
D) exposure continues, even after the patient is removed from the environment.

Ans: B
Page: 1327
Type: General Knowledge

6

6. From an anatomic and physiologic perspective, inhaled toxins:
A) generally provide a large window of opportunity for treatment.
B) quickly reach the alveoli and rapidly gain access to the circulatory system.
C) typically take between 15 and 20 minutes to exert a systemic effect.
D) often take several hours before clinical signs and symptoms manifest.

Ans: B
Page: 1327-1328
Type: General Knowledge

7

7. Clinical signs and symptoms following exposure to a toxin will manifest MOST rapidly if the patient:
A) is older than 70 years of age.
B) ingests a large quantity of toxin.
C) breathes in the toxic chemical.
D) is exposed by the injection route.

Ans: D
Page: 1328
Type: General Knowledge

8

8. Which of the following toxins causes the MOST serious consequences when absorbed through the skin?
A) Dry lime
B) Poison oak
C) Pesticides
D) Sulfuric acid

Ans: C
Page: 1328
Type: General Knowledge


9

9. Unlike an opioid, an opiate:
A) is a natural product derived from opium.
B) produces a distinctly different toxidrome.
C) is not reversed by naloxone administration.
D) is a synthetic, non–opium-derived narcotic.

Ans: A
Page: 1328
Type: General Knowledge

10

10. You would NOT expect a person using methamphetamine to present with:
A) insomnia.
B) bradypnea.
C) restlessness.
D) hypertension.

Ans: B
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

11

11. Exposure to sarin or tabun would result in:
A) hyperthermia.
B) pupillary dilation.
C) severe tachycardia.
D) excessive lacrimation.

Ans: D
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

12

12. Any sympathomimetic drug will cause:
A) ataxia.
B) tachycardia.
C) hallucinations.
D) hypothermia.

Ans: B
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

13

13. Which of the following drugs is classified as an anticholinergic?
A) Diazinon
B) Atropine
C) Thiopental
D) Phenylephrine

Ans: B
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

14

14. You would expect a person to be hypertensive and tachycardic following exposure to all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) cocaine.
B) parathion.
C) phenobarbital.
D) pseudoephedrine.

Ans: C
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

15

15. The odor of bitter almonds on a patient's breath should make you suspicious for exposure to:
A) cyanide.
B) arsenic.
C) phosphorus.
D) turpentine.

Ans: A
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

16

16. An acetone breath odor is common following exposure to all of the following toxins, EXCEPT:
A) aspirin.
B) isopropyl alcohol.
C) camphor.
D) methyl alcohol.

Ans: C
Page: 1329
Type: General Knowledge

17

17. Most ingested poisons will cause:
A) headache and seizures.
B) tremors and weakness.
C) salivation and coma.
D) nausea and vomiting.

Ans: D
Page: 1330
Type: General Knowledge

18

18. Drug abuse is MOST accurately defined as:
A) the habitual use of illicit drugs for the purpose of inducing a euphoric feeling.
B) any use of drugs that causes physical, psychological, or legal harm to the user.
C) the use of legal medications that is not in accordance with a physician's order.
D) inadvertent misuse of a licit or illicit drug that causes physical harm to the user.

Ans: B
Page: 1330
Type: General Knowledge

19

19. The emotional state of craving a drug to maintain a feeling of well-being is called:
A) addiction.
B) habituation.
C) physical dependence.
D) psychological dependence.

Ans: D
Page: 1331
Type: General Knowledge

20

20. A middle-aged woman who has been taking 2 mg of clonazepam each day for 6 months finds that she now requires 4 mg each day to achieve the same effect. This is an example of:
A) tolerance.
B) drug abuse.
C) habituation.
D) physical dependence.

Ans: A
Page: 1331
Type: General Knowledge

21

21. A person who compulsively uses a drug, despite the fact that he or she knows the drug will cause physical or psychological harm, is:
A) tolerant.
B) addicted.
C) dependent.
D) an abuser.

Ans: B
Page: 1331
Type: General Knowledge

22

22. Alcohol potentiates Valium. This means that:
A) Valium makes alcohol a toxic substance.
B) alcohol antagonizes the effects of Valium.
C) alcohol enhances the effects of Valium.
D) the use of alcohol negates the use of Valium.

Ans: C
Page: 1331
Type: General Knowledge

23

23. Which of the following statements regarding alcoholism is correct?
A) A person who consumes alcohol is considered to be physically dependent if abrupt cessation of drinking causes withdrawal symptoms.
B) Patients with alcoholism typically do not become psychologically dependent on alcohol until they have been drinking for many years.
C) Delirium tremens occur any time a person suddenly stops drinking excessive amounts of alcohol, regardless of whether or not he or she is addicted.
D) Increased blood pressure and hallucinations are common physical manifestations when a short-term alcoholic slowly tapers his or her consumption.

Ans: A
Page: 1333-1334
Type: General Knowledge

24

24. Which of the following is atypical of an alcoholic?
A) Drinking early in the day
B) Green tongue syndrome
C) Memory loss or blackouts
D) Chronically pale face and palms

Ans: D
Page: 1333-1334
Type: General Knowledge

25

25. Patients with alcoholism are prone to subdural hematomas and gastrointestinal bleeding because:
A) they fall more frequently than sober people.
B) their blood-clotting mechanisms are impaired.
C) they are at higher risk for violent assault.
D) alcohol causes significant immunocompromise.

Ans: B
Page: 1335
Type: General Knowledge

26

26. Toxic effects of alcohol on the liver include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) coagulopathy.
B) hypoglycemia.
C) hyperglycemia.
D) gastrointestinal bleeding.

Ans: C
Page: 1335
Type: General Knowledge

27

27. Which of the following is the MOST immediate danger to an unresponsive patient with acute alcohol intoxication?
A) Acute hypovolemia
B) Aspiration of vomitus
C) Profound bradycardia
D) Ventricular dysrhythmias

Ans: B
Page: 1335
Type: General Knowledge

28

28. Symptoms of delirium tremens usually begin within ___ to ___ hours after the last alcohol intake.
A) 12, 24
B) 24, 48
C) 48, 72
D) 72, 96

Ans: C
Page: 1335
Type: General Knowledge

29

29. Patients with delirium tremens often experience:
A) hallucinations.
B) AV heart blocks.
C) hypothermia.
D) acute hypertension.

Ans: A
Page: 1335
Type: General Knowledge

30

30. When caring for an unresponsive patient with a toxicologic emergency, you should:
A) intubate at once, obtain baseline vital signs, transport immediately, and perform all other interventions en route to the hospital.
B) administer high-flow oxygen, perform a detailed secondary assessment, obtain vital signs, and transport to the closest hospital.
C) try to neutralize any ingested toxins, secure a definitive airway, obtain baseline vital signs, start an IV line, and transport as soon as possible.
D) protect the airway, perform a rapid assessment, obtain vital signs, try to gather a medical history from the family, and transport promptly.

Ans: D
Page: 1331-1333
Type: General Knowledge