Chapter 43 Pediatric Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 43 Pediatric Emergencies Deck (170)
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1

1. In contrast to adults, children:
A) land on their feet when they fall.
B) have proportionately larger heads.
C) experience head injury less frequently.
D) lose most body heat through the chest.

Ans: B
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

2

2. Compared to adults, the smaller diameter of a child's airway makes it more vulnerable to:
A) laryngospasm.
B) inhalation injury.
C) oropharyngeal secretions.
D) obstruction by the tongue.

Ans: D
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

3

3. A child's vocal cords can be difficult to visualize during intubation because:
A) the epiglottis is floppy and U-shaped.
B) the cords themselves are more posterior.
C) a sniffing position is difficult to achieve.
D) the area of the cricoid cartilage is narrow.

Ans: A
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

4

4. Which of the following statements regarding a child's chest wall is correct?
A) Lung sounds are difficult to hear because of the thick intercostal muscles.
B) Children are belly breathers because they rely heavily on their diaphragms.
C) A child's chest wall has proportionately more subcutaneous fat on the chest.
D) Retractions are less obvious in children owing to their noncompliant rib cages.

Ans: B
Page: 2008
Type: General Knowledge

5

5. When a child experiences a low cardiac output state, he or she relies MOST on:
A) increased tidal volume.
B) central vasoconstriction.
C) an increase in heart rate.
D) increased stroke volume.

Ans: C
Page: 2008
Type: General Knowledge

6

6. Most children begin to develop stranger anxiety between ___ and ___ months of age.
A) 3, 6
B) 6, 12
C) 12, 18
D) 18, 24

Ans: B
Page: 2005
Type: General Knowledge

7

7. Children between 1 and 3 years of age:
A) are capable of basic reasoning.
B) have a well-developed sense of cause and effect.
C) generally explore the world exclusively by crawling.
D) may have negative associations with health care providers

Ans: D
Page: 2005
Type: General Knowledge

8

8. The FIRST step in examining a toddler in stable condition is to:
A) let the child sit on a parent's lap.
B) place yourself at the child's level.
C) quickly examine any painful areas.
D) allow the child to hold a favorite toy.

Ans: A
Page: 2005
Type: General Knowledge

9

9. When assessing a 5-year-old child, you should:
A) be able to conduct a head-to-toe exam.
B) ask simple yes or no questions if possible.
C) generally use a toe-to-head exam approach.
D) first ask a parent where the child is hurting.

Ans: A
Page: 2006
Type: General Knowledge

10

10. An 8-year-old child:
A) is analytic but is not capable of abstract thought.
B) should not be the initial historian regarding an illness.
C) is anatomically and physiologically similar to an adult.
D) generally requires little reassurance and encouragement.

Ans: C
Page: 2006
Type: General Knowledge

11


11. With respect to CPR and foreign body airway obstruction procedures, the child should be treated as an adult once:
A) he or she reaches the age of 8 to 10 years.
B) resting vital signs are consistent with an adult.
C) his or her body weight is estimated at 55 pounds.
D) secondary sexual characteristics have developed.

Ans: D
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

12

12. A 15-year-old child can be difficult to treat for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
A) peer pressure.
B) stranger anxiety.
C) independence issues.
D) cognizance of body image.

Ans: B
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

13

13. When assessing and caring for a 17-year-old gang member, it is MOST important to remember that he or she:
A) must be separated from other gang members.
B) generally desires the presence of a caregiver.
C) typically boasts about the use of illicit drugs.
D) may have a weapon and a reputation to earn.

Ans: D
Page: 2007
Type: General Knowledge

14

14. Establishing good rapport with the caregiver of a sick or injured child at the scene is vital because:
A) caregivers often take their anger out on prehospital professionals.
B) he or she will be a source of important information and assistance.
C) doing so will quickly deescalate any hostility that he or she may have.
D) the caregiver generally will not accompany the child in the ambulance.

Ans: B
Page: 2010
Type: General Knowledge

15

15. If the parent or caregiver of a sick or injured child is emotionally distraught:
A) provide support, but remember that your first priority is the child.
B) you should firmly tell him or her that the situation is under control.
C) he or she should follow the ambulance in his or her personal vehicle.
D) the parent or caregiver should be removed from the scene immediately.

Ans: A
Page: 2011
Type: General Knowledge

16

16. The pediatric assessment triangle was designed to:
A) formulate a working field diagnosis upon first sight of an ill child.
B) identify immediate life threats through a rapid hands-on assessment.
C) help EMS providers form a hands-off general impression of an ill child.
D) provide a means for performing a rapid head-to-toe physical assessment.

Ans: C
Page: 2011
Type: General Knowledge

17

17. The pediatric assessment triangle will help answer all of the following questions, EXCEPT:
A) “Is the child sick or not sick?”
B) “Will the child cooperate during my exam?”
C) “Does the child require emergency treatment?”
D) “What is the most likely physiologic abnormality?”

Ans: B
Page: 2011
Type: General Knowledge

18

18. A sick or injured child's general appearance is MOST reflective of:
A) the etiology of the problem.
B) his or her cardiovascular status.
C) his or her central nervous system function.
D) his or her ability to be consoled.

Ans: C
Page: 2011
Type: General Knowledge

19

19. A child who is disinterested in your presence and has a blank stare and poor muscle tone:
A) is likely hypoglycemic or in septic shock.
B) should be ventilated with a bag-mask device.
C) will most likely require pharmacologic support.
D) requires immediate intervention and transport.

Ans: D
Page: 2012
Type: General Knowledge

20

20. The work-of-breathing component of the pediatric assessment triangle includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) listening for grunting or audible wheezing.
B) noting the child's position during breathing.
C) auscultating the lungs for adventitious sounds.
D) looking for substernal or intercostal retractions.

Ans: C
Page: 2012-2013
Type: General Knowledge

21

21. A conscious child who is in the sniffing position:
A) is trying to align the axes of the airway to improve ventilation.
B) is clearly experiencing a lower airway obstruction.
C) will refuse to lie down and leans forward on outstretched arms.
D) assumes a physical position that optimizes accessory muscle use.

Ans: A
Page: 2013
Type: General Knowledge

22

22. In contrast to adults, retractions in children are:
A) more evident in the intercostal area.
B) less commonly seen below the sternum.
C) usually less prominent above the clavicles.
D) evident in the sternocleidomastoid muscles.

Ans: A
Page: 2013
Type: General Knowledge

23

23. When assessing a child's circulation by looking at his or her skin, pallor is MOST indicative of:
A) vasomotor instability and decompensated shock.
B) peripheral vasoconstriction and compensated shock.
C) poor oxygenation and a state of circulatory collapse.
D) systemic vasodilation with resulting low blood pressure.

Ans: B
Page: 2014
Type: General Knowledge

24

24. Which of the following statements regarding acrocyanosis is correct?
A) Acrocyanosis is seen in the skin and mucous membranes and is a late finding if respiratory failure or shock is present.
B) Acrocyanosis is only considered to be a normal finding in newborns and usually resolves within 12 hours following birth.
C) Acrocyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the chest, abdomen, and face and is the most extreme visual indicator of poor perfusion.
D) Acrocyanosis is cyanosis of the hands and feet, and is a normal finding in infants younger than 2 months of age who are cold.

Ans: D
Page: 2014
Type: General Knowledge

25

25. The length-based resuscitation tape:
A) is only reliable in children who weigh less than 20 kg.
B) should not be relied upon for determining pediatric drug doses.
C) is used to estimate a child's weight based on his or her height.
D) is generally more accurate than the weight given by a caregiver.

Ans: C
Page: 2014
Type: General Knowledge

26

26. Counting an infant's respiratory rate for 15 seconds and then quadrupling that number:
A) is recommended because it is the quickest way to determine if the infant's baseline respiratory rate is abnormally slow or abnormally fast.
B) may yield a falsely low respiratory rate because infants may have periodic breathing or variable respiratory rates with short periods of apnea.
C) is impractical because the inherent respiratory rate of an infant is usually rapid and counting for such a short period of time leaves room for error.
D) is appropriate only if you are auscultating the child's respirations with a stethoscope while simultaneously listening to lung sounds.

Ans: B
Page: 2015
Type: General Knowledge

27

27. A normal respiratory rate in a child:
A) may be observed if the child has been breathing rapidly with increased work of breathing and is becoming fatigued.
B) generally ranges between 15 and 20 breaths per minute and is influenced easily by factors such as excitement, fear, or fever.
C) cannot be established accurately because a toddler's respirations generally are grossly irregular and extremely difficult to count.
D) is a sign of impending respiratory failure if it is observed in conjunction with a room air oxygen saturation reading of less than 96%.

Ans: A
Page: 2015
Type: General Knowledge

28

28. When evaluating a child's oxygen saturation level with a pulse oximeter:
A) you should recall that peripheral vasodilation from a warm environment will typically yield a false reading.
B) it should be evaluated in the context of the pediatric assessment triangle and remainder of the primary assessment.
C) you should provide ventilatory assistance with a bag-mask device if the reading is below 94% and not increasing rapidly.
D) a reading of less than 96% on room air indicates respiratory distress and necessitates the administration of supplemental oxygen.

Ans: B
Page: 2015
Type: General Knowledge

29

29. Early hypoxia in a child would MOST likely present with:
A) tachycardia.
B) bradypnea.
C) mottled skin.
D) bradycardia.

Ans: A
Page: 2015
Type: General Knowledge

30

30. If you cannot palpate the femoral pulse in an unresponsive infant, you should:
A) apply an AED at once.
B) palpate the brachial pulse.
C) initiate CPR immediately.
D) assess for adequate breathing.

Ans: C
Page: 2015
Type: General Knowledge