chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

psychology > chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 3 Deck (40):
1

sensation

brining information to the brain through the senses

2

perception

activity organizing and interpreting the information received

3

weber's law

stating that just noticeable differences for all the senses depend on a percentage of change in the stimulus rather than on a fixed amount of change

4

absolute threshold

the minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected

5

difference threshold

a measure of the smallest increase or descries in physical stimulus that required to produce a difference in sensation

6

pupil

opening in the iris, where the light comes through

7

iris

muscle that regulates opening, low light becomes bigger, bright light becomes smaller

8

lens

focus the light to back of eyeball

9

retina

back of eyeball, contains 2 kinds of cells

10

properties of light

hue-color
brightness-intensity
saturation-purity

11

nearsighted

myopia, far items blurred

12

farsighted

hyperopia, near items blurred

13

rods

low illumination levels (x20 rods than cones)

14

cones

for bright, color, detail (6 million)

15

optic disk

at the point of entry of the optic nerve, lacking visual receptors and so creating a blind spot.

16

optic chiasm

the X-shaped structure formed at the point below the brain where the two optic nerves cross over each other.

17

three properties of sound

frequency-pitch
amplitude-loudness
timbre- distinctive quality

18

olfaction

sense of smell, epithelium

19

bottom-up processing

data driven

20

top-down processing

concept driven

21

perceptual set

what we expect to see determines what we perceive

22

gestalt principles

figure-ground- background
similarity- alike grouped together
closure- see complete figure

23

binocular cues to depth perception

depends on both eyes working together,
binocular disparity- the farther way from the eyes the object being viewed the less difference between two retinal images

24

monocular cues of depth perception

perceived by one eye alone, interposition, texture gradient, atmospheric perspective

25

interposition

when objects partly block your view of another, your perceive the partly blocked object as father away

26

texture gradient

objects closer to you appear to have sharply defined features and similar objects thats are father away appear progressively less week defined

27

atmospheric perspective

objects in the distance have bluish tint and appear more blurred than objects closer

28

size constancy

as objects or people move father away you continue to perceive the as being about the same size

29

shape constancy

the tendency to perceive objects as having stable shape regardless of changes in the retinal images from different viewing angles

30

autokinetic effect

if you stare at a single unmoving light in a dark room for a few seconds the light will appear to be moving

31

phi phenomenon

several stationery lights in a dark room far flashed on and offing a sequence causing participants to perceive a single light moving from one spot to another

32

ambiguous figures

same sensation but different perceptions

33

subliminal perception

the capacity to perceive and respond to stimuli that are presented below the threshold of awareness

34

synesthesia

the capacity for experiencing unusual sensations along ordinary ones
"colored hearing" and "colored taste"

35

colored hearing

individuals sense colors in response of word

36

colored taste

individuals sees a color and senses a taste

37

esp

extrasensory perception

38

telepathy

gaining awareness of the thoughts, feelings, or activities of another person without use of sense

39

clairvoyance

gaining information about objects or events without the use of senses

40

precognition

an awareness of event before it occurs