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1
Q

Group of tissue designed to perform specific function

A

Organ

2
Q

Collection of organs that work together to perform overall function.

A

Organ system

3
Q

Compartments, particles, or filaments that perform specialized functions in a cell.

A

Organelles

4
Q

Any of a class of fat related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids, and nitrogen containing component. Is essential for every cell.

A

Phospholipid

5
Q

The fluid in organelles “except nucleus” in a cell.

A

Cytoplasm

6
Q

No requiring oxygen

A

Anaerobic

7
Q

Organelles that main sights of energy production in a cell.

A

Mitochondria

8
Q

Requires oxygen

A

Aerbioc

9
Q

Organelle bound by its own double membrane and containing chromosome the genetic information for cell protein synthesis and cell replication.

A

Cell nucleus

10
Q

Single large DNA molecule and its associated protein contain many genes to store and transmit genetic information.

A

Chromosome

11
Q

A specific segment on a chromosome,& they provide blue print for cell proteins.

A

Gene

12
Q

The sight of hereditary information in cells. Directs synthesis of cell proteins.

A

DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)

13
Q

The single strand of nucleic acid involved in the transcription of genetic information and the translation of that information into protein source.

A

Ribonucleic acid

14
Q

Process in which DNA is copied to RNA during protein synthesis

A

Transcription

15
Q

Cytoplasmic particles that mediate the linking together of Amino acids to form proteins. May exist freely in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum.

A

Ribosomes

16
Q

The process of which genetic information copied onto RNA dictates the amino acid sequence to form a protein.

A

Translation

17
Q

U.S. Of DNA information on gene to produce a protein.

A

Gene expression

18
Q

An organelle composed of a network of canals running though the cytoplasm. Part of which contain ribozymes.

A

Endoplasmic reticulum

19
Q

The cell organelle near the nucleus that processes newly synthesized proteins for secretion or distribution to other organelles.

A

Golgi complex

20
Q

Membrane bound vessels produced by Golgi complex. Contain protein and other compounds to be secreted by the cell.

A

Secretory vessels

21
Q

A cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes for use inside the cell for turn over of cell parts.

A

Lysosome

22
Q

Cell organelle that destroy toxic products within the cell.

A

Peroxisome

23
Q

Main energy currency for cells used to promote ion pumping, muscular contraction, & enzyme activity.

A

Adenosine triphosphate

24
Q

Surface cells that line outside of body, and all external passages within it.

A

Epithelial tissue

25
Q

Protein that holds different structures of body together. Notably tendons and cartilage. Forms part of bone and on muscled structures of arteries and veins.

A

Connective tissue

26
Q

A type of tissue adapted to contract to cause movement.

A

Muscle tissue

27
Q

Tissue composed of highly branched elongated cells that transport nerve impulses from one part of body to the other.

A

Nervous tissue

28
Q

Heart blood vessels and blood. Transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body and plays important role in immune responses and regulations of body temperatures.

A

Cardiovascular system

29
Q

Vessels in lymph that accepts fluid surrounding cells and large particles. Such as products of fat exertion.

A

Lymphatic system

30
Q

Clear fluid that flows through lymph vessels and carries most forms of fat after absorption by small intestine.

A

Lymph

31
Q

Fluid extra cellular portion of the circulating blood. Includes blood serum plus all blood clotting factors.

A

Plasma

32
Q

The fluid that remains after clotting factors have been removed from plasma.

A

Serum

33
Q

Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

A

Artery

34
Q

Microscopic blood vessel that connects veins to arteries. Sight of nutrient oxygen and waste.

A

Capillary

35
Q

Blood vessel that carries blood to heart.

A

Vein

36
Q

The portion of circulatory system that uses a large vein to carry nutrient rich blood from capillaries in intestines and portions of stomach to liver.

A

Hepatic portal circulation

37
Q

Large vein leaving intestines and stomach and connecting to the liver.

A

Hepatic portal veins

38
Q

Kidneys, urinary bladder, & ducts that carry urine, removes waste from circulatory system and regulates blood acid base balance, overall chemical balance, & water balance in the body.

A

Urinary system

39
Q

Tube that transports urine from kidney to urinary bladder.

A

Ureter

40
Q

Nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism.

A

Urea

41
Q

Collections of cells adapted to perform a specific function

A

Tissues

42
Q

A hormone secreted mostly by the kidneys that enhances red blood cell synthesis and stimulates red blood cell release from bone marrow.

A

Erythropoietin

43
Q

the body system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.

A

Nervous system

44
Q

The structural and functional unit of the nervous system consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon.

A

Neuron

45
Q

The space between one neuron and another neuron.

A

Synapse

46
Q

A compound made by a nerve cell that allows for communication between it and other cells.

A

Neurotransmitter

47
Q

A neurotransmitter from nerve endings and a hormone from the adrenal gland.

A

Norepinephrine

48
Q

A hormone also known as adrenaline; it is released by the adrenal glands (located on each kidney) at time of stress.

A

Epinephrine

49
Q

A lipid and protein combination that covers nerve fibers.

A

Myelin

50
Q

The body system consisting of the various glands and the hormones these glands secrete.

A

Endocrine system

51
Q

A hormone producing gland.

A

Endocrine gland

52
Q

A hormone produced by the pancreas.

A

Insulin

53
Q

Hormones produced by the thyroid gland that regulate growth and metabolic rate.

A

Thyroid hormones

54
Q

One of the formed elements of the circulating blood system; also called leukocytes.

A

White blood cells

55
Q

Process in which a cell forms an indentation, and particles or fluids enter the indentation and are engulfed by the cell.

A

Phagocytosis

56
Q

Defenses that stops the invasion of pathogens.

A

Nonspecific immunity

57
Q

Function of white blood cells directed at specific antigens.

A

Specific immunity

58
Q

A site in a cell at which compounds (such as hormones) bind.

A

Receptor

59
Q

A bro thy, meaty, savory flavor in some foods

A

Umami

60
Q

Generally the ability to move spontaneously. It also refers to movement of food though the GI tract.

A

Motility

61
Q

The hollow opening inside a tube, such as a GI tract.

A

Lumen

62
Q

The main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients.

A

Gastrointestinal tract (GI)

63
Q

The process by which substances are taken up from the GI tract and enter the bloodstream or lymph.

A

Absorption

64
Q

Process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down to produce basic nutrients that can be absorbed across the wall of the GI tract.

A

Digestion

65
Q

System consisting of the GI tract and accessory structures (liver,gallbladder, and pancreas).

A

Digestive system

66
Q

Any substance that induces a state of sensitivity and/or resistance to microorganisms, or toxic substances after a lag period.

A

Antigen

67
Q

Blood protein that binds foreign protein

S found in the body.

A

Antibody

68
Q

Watery fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth.

A

Saliva

69
Q

A starch digesting enzyme produced by the salary glands and the pancreas.

A

Amylase

70
Q

Fat digesting enzyme produced by the salvia glands, stomach, and pancreas.

A

Lipase

71
Q

A thick fluid secreted by many cells throughout the body.

A

Mucus

72
Q

Sphincter between stomach and small intestine.

A

Pyloric sphincter

73
Q

A mixture of stomach secretions and primarily digests food.

A

Chyme

74
Q

A circular muscle that constructs the opening of the esophagus and stomach.

A

Lower esophageal sphincter

75
Q

A coordinated muscular muscle contraction used to propel food down the GI tract.

A

Peristalsis

76
Q

A moistened mass of food swallowed from the oral cavity into the pharynx.

A

Bolus

77
Q

Protein digesting enzyme produced by the stomach, small intestine, and pancreas.

A

Protease

78
Q

A protein like compound produced by the stomach that enhances vitamin B-12 absorption.

A

Intrinsic factor

79
Q

First segment of the small intestine that receives chyme from the stomach and digestive juices from the pancreas and gallbladder.

A

Duodenum

80
Q

Middle segment of the small intestine.

A

Jejunum

81
Q

Last segment of the small intestine.

A

Ileum

82
Q

The finger like protrusions into the small intestine that participate in digestion and absorption of food.

A

Villi

83
Q

Intestine cells that line the villi and participate in nutrient absorption.

A

Absorptive cells

84
Q

Extensive folds on the mucosal surface of the absorption cells.

A

Microvilli

85
Q

The ring of smooth between the end of the small intestine and beginning of large intestine.

A

Ileocecal sphincter

86
Q

Small intestine absorbs?

A

Calcium, glucose, amino acids, fats, vitamins, water, alcohol, bile acid

87
Q

Large intestine absorb?

A

Sodium, potassium, some fatty acids, gasses, water

88
Q

Product that contains specific types of bacteria.

A

Probiotic

89
Q

Mass of water, fiber, tough connective tissue, bacteria cells, and sloughed intestinal that pass through large intestine and secreted through the anus.

A

Feces

90
Q

Terminal portion of large intestine.

A

Restum

91
Q

A group of two sphincter stop control inner and outer movement.

A

Anal sphincter

92
Q

An organ attached to the underside of the liver.

A

Gallbladder

93
Q

A liver secretion stored in the gallbladder and released through the common bile duct into the first segment of the small intestine.

A

Bile

94
Q

A continual recycling of compounds such as bile acids between the small intestine and the liver.

A

Enterohepatic circulation

95
Q

The way that genome is marked and packaged inside the cell nucleus.

A

Epigenome

96
Q

Changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence.

A

Epigenetics

97
Q

Study of the interactions between nutrients and genetics.

A

Nutritional genomics

98
Q

Study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes.

A

Nutrigenomics