Chapter 3: Federalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Federalism Deck (28):
1

A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments

Federalism

2

A centralized government system in which lower levels of government have a little power independent of the national government

Unitary system

3

Specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article l, Section 8) and the president (Article ll)

Expressed powers

4

Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of article 1, section 8, of the Constitution;

such powers are not specifically expressed but implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers

Implied powers

5

Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution which provides Congress with authority to make laws necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers

Necessary and proper clause

6

Powers, derived from the 10th amendment to the constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states

Reserved powers

7

Power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens

Police power

8

Authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes

Concurrent powers

9

Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state

Full faith and credit clause

10

Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own resident special privileges

Privileges and immunities clause

11

Power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs

Home rule

12

The system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers are shared between the federal and state governments

Dual Federalism

13

Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states and with Indian tribes";

This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy

Commerce clause

14

The principle that states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government; this principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War

State's rights

15

Programs through which Congress provides money to state and local government's on the condition that funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government

Grants-in-aid

16

Congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law

Categorical grants

17

Grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis

Project grants

18

Grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive

Formula grants

19

A type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals

Cooperative federalism

20

also known as intergovernmental corporation

Cooperative federalism

21

A form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on state and localities, requiring them to meet national standards

Regulated federalism

22

The principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions and certain policy areas;
in foreign policy, willingness to strike first in order to prevent an enemy attack

Preemption

23

Regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government

Unfunded mandates

24

A policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments

Devolution

25

Federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent

Block grants

26

Attempts by President Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants

New federalism

27

The process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula;

revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to state governments

General revenue sharing

28

Economic policies designed to control the economy through taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor

Redistributive programs