Chapter 5: Civil Rights Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Civil Rights Deck (18):
1

The use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion or exclusion

Discrimination

2

Obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens

Civil rights

3

Provision of the 14th amendment guaranteeing citizens "the equal protection of the laws."
This clause has been the basis of civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups

Equal protection clause

4

One of three Civil War amendments; it abolished slavery

13th amendment

5

One of the three Civil War amendments;
that guaranteed equal protection and due process

14th amendment

6

One of the three Civil War amendments;
It guaranteed voting rights for African American men

15th amendment

7

Laws enacted by Southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans

Jim Crow laws

8

Doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be considered equal

"Separate but equal" rule

9

The 1954 Supreme Court decision that struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine as fundamentally unequal;

this case eliminated state power to use race as a criterion of discrimination in law and provided the national government with power to intervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory actions

Brown v. board of education

10

A test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights that places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional

Strict scrutiny

11

Literally, "by law" refers to legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the south before the 1960s

De Jure

12

Literally "by fact"; refers to practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today

De facto

13

refers to legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the south before the 1960s

De jure

14

refers to practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today

De facto

15

The appointment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party

Gerrymandering

16

A practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations

Redlining

17

A test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases that places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is unconstitutional

Intermediate scrutiny

18

Government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of those groups with access to educational and employment opportunities

Affirmative action