Chapter 3: The Biological Basis of Human Variation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: The Biological Basis of Human Variation Deck (77)
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1

genetics

the study of genes and how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next

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genes

sequence of DNA that code for proteins

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stem cells

unspecialized cells that have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells in the body

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nucleus

a structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material

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prokaryotes

organisms that lack a cell nucleus

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pluripotent

having the ability to differentiate into different tissue types

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eukaryotes

organisms that have within their cells a nucleus containing DNA

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nucleotides

the basic structural units of a DNA or RNA molecule consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and base

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bases

chemical units making up part of DNA and RNA molecules. There are four bases in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil

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nuclear DNA (nDNA)

DNA found within the nucleus of a cell

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chromosomes

structures composed of DNA and found in the nucleus of cells

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locus

the location of a gene on a chromosome

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mitochondria

structures within a cell that generate energy for the cell

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replication

the process whereby a duplicate copy of a molecule (i.e., DNA) is made

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enzymes

proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body

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mutations

alterations to genes or chromosomes

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point mutations

changes in base pairs of gene sequences

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deletions

mutation characterized by the loss of DNA

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insertions

mutations characterized by the addition of DNA into a length of chromosome

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inversions

mutations in which a section of DNA is reversed

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industrial melanism

increased pigmentation resulting from human modification of the environment, such as occurred during the Industrial Revolution

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single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

genetic variations that are produced by the substitution of a single nucleotide in a sequence. SNPs are point mutations that occur in at least 1% of the population

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protein synthesis

the process by which amino acids are assembled to form proteins

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amino acids

molecules that make up proteins

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polypeptide

a chain of amino acids

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ribosomes

structures found in cells that are involved in the assembly of proteins

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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messenger RNA (mRNA)

a form of RNA that carries the genetic instructions of a DNA molecule to the site of protein synthesis

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transcription

transfer of genetic information carried by DNA to RNA

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cytoplasm

the substance found within the cell membrane and surrounding the nucleus