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Flashcards in Chapter 11: The Advent of Humanity Deck (25)
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1

Neandertals

a group of Late Pleistocene hominins who lived in Europe and western Asia between approximately 130 000 and 30 000 hears ago

2

archaic hominins

hominins that show a mosaic of Homo erectus and modern human traits

3

calvarium

the skull, excluding the facial bones and mandible

4

classic Neandertals

Neandertals of western Europe that exhibited the most pronounced morphological characteristics of this group of hominins

5

occipital bun

a bulge on the occipital bone of the skull that projects posteriorly, typical of Neandertals

6

midfacial prognathism

forward projection of the nasal region of the face

7

retromolar space

a gap between the third molar and the ascending ramus of the mandible

8

taurodontism

enlargement of the pulp cavity in molar teeth, a characteristic of Neandertals

9

paranasal sinuses

a group of four pairs of air filled spaces located on both sides of the nasal cavity, above and between teh eyes, and within the sphenoid bone

10

temporomandibular joint

the location on the skull base where the mandible articulates with the temporal bone

11

masticatory

related to mastication (chewing)

12

cross-sectional geometry

the mass and distribution (shape) of cortical bone viewed in a plane perpendicular to the long axis of a tubular bone, such as the femur of metacarpal

13

pubic ramus

the portion of the pubic bone of the pelvis that extends medially

14

ontogeny

the development of an organism from embryo to adult

15

linear enamel hypoplasia

horizontal defects in tooth enamel that represent episodes of physiological stress that occurred while the teeth were forming

16

Mousterian

a Middle Paleolithic stone tool industry generally associated with Neandertals

17

Middle Palaeolithic

the period dating from about 250 000 to 40 000 years ago and associated with Mousterian tools

18

Levallois

a tool-manufacturing technique of the Middle Paleolithic that involved making tools from a prepared core

19

Chatelperronian

an Upper Paleolithic tool industry associated with late Neandertals

20

zooarchaeological

nonhuman, typically used to refer to animal bones

21

larynx

an organ in the neck responsible for the production of sound; also known as the voice box

22

pharynx

part of the neck and throat located superior to the larynx that modifies sounds made by the larynx

23

basicranial flexion

the degree of angling of the base of the skull from which the position of the larynx and size of the pharynx can be inferred

24

vowel space

the space within the oral cavity in which vowel sounds are created by altering the relative position of tongue and pharynx

25

hyoid bone

a bone in the neck that supports the tongue and provides attachment for muscles that connect to the larynx