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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction to Biological Anthropology Deck (43)
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1

biological anthropology

the study of the biological origins, evolution, and contemporary diversity of humans and their primate relatives

2

variation

observable differences within a class of objects, the source of which may be genetic or environmental or both in interaction

3

forensic anthropology

the application of anthropological knowledge to solving offences committed against people, including homicide and war crimes

4

multidisciplinary

an investigative approach that brings the expertise of a number of disciplines to bear on a particular question within an existing field of study

5

interdisciplinary

an investigative approach that brings diverse fields together to create a new arena of study

6

anthropology

the global and comparative study of humankind, past and present

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holism

the integrated study of all aspects of human life, biological, cultural, historical, psychological, etc., in order to develop a comprehensive view of the whole of the human condition

8

pandemic

a disease affecting populations across a large area, typically used in reference to a global occurrence

9

prevalence

the proportion of a population exhibiting a particular feature at any one point in time

10

cultural anthropology

the study of the structure and function of human societies, usually from a cross-cultural perspective

11

ethnography

an account of field research exploring various practices and phenomena within a given society; in contrast, ethnology is the comparative study of different cultural systems

12

archaeology

the systematic study of past human lifeways through an analysis of human interactions with and modifications of the environment, including the origin and development of technology

13

anthropological linguistics

the study of the origin, evolution, and use (social context) of languages

14

thermoregulation

the adjustment of body temperature within a normal physiological range under varying environmental conditions

15

biocultural

a research perspective that recognizes the inter-relationship of biology and the many facets of culture, including technology and social behaviour

16

applied anthropology

a subfield emphasizing project-based, problem-oriented, practical applications of anthropological knowledge

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cranial morphology

the relative size and shape configuration of the various bones of the skull

18

community-based research

an approach in which investigators work directly with a community to develop, organize, and implement a research program

19

osteology

the descriptive and comparative study of bones and teeth

20

isotopes

an isotope is a measurable form of a chemical element varying in the number of neutrons within its nucleus (e.g. 12-carbon and 14-carbon are different isotopes of carbon; an atom of the former has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and the latter has 2 extra neutrons)

21

paleopathology

literally, the study of ancient disease and trauma

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paleoanthropology

the study of human evolution through fossils and the circumstances in which they are found

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hominin

a term inclusive of modern humans and their bipedal ancestors

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taxon

a formal designation of biological classification; plural taxa (e.g., we are all members of the taxon homo sapiens)

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human biology

a branch of biological anthropology that examines modern population diversity

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anthropometry

the measurement of body form

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hypoxia

low oxygen availability, characteristically associated with high altitude

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adaptability

the tendency for an organism to achieve increased functional capacity through a modification of body form and/or physiological pathway when faced with an environmental stressor

29

molecular anthropology

the study of population diversity at the level of the gene and its products (both structural and regulatory proteins)

30

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the fundamental genetic material of life