Chapter 6: Primate Behavioural Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Primate Behavioural Ecology Deck (36)
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1

behavioural ecology

the study of the ways in which primates adapt behaviourally to their environment

2

captive

housed in environments such as zoos and colonies where movement is restricted

3

provisioned

supplied with food

4

free-ranging

animals whose movements are not hindered by humans

5

habituated

accustomed to the presence of humans

6

social brain hypothesis

the hypothesis that the cognitive demands of living in complex social groups explains why primates have unusually large brains for their body size

7

monogamous

characterized by one adult male, one adult female, and their offspring

8

single-male/multi-female

consisting of a single adult male and several adult females and their offspring

9

polygynous

a type of mating pattern in which one male mates with more than one female

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polyandry

a type of mating pattern in which one female mates with more than one male

11

multi-male/multi-female

consisting of a number of adult males and females and their offspring

12

fission-fusion

a type of multi-male/multi-female social group whose membership changes frequently as sub-units split apart (fission) and later rejoin (fusion)

13

philopatric

remaining in one's birth group

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matrilineal

groups in which descent is traced through the female line

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dominance hierarchies

social structures in which males or females hold positions of rank determined either through competition or inheritance

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rank

the social position or status of an individual within a group

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sexual selection

a theory proposed by Charles Darwin to explain why males of some species adopt behaviours or morphologies that may not appear adaptive in terms of natural selection, but that in fact enhance reproductive opportunities as a result of successful competition with other males and their subsequent selection by females as potential mates

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subordinate

a lower ranking individual

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alpha

the highest ranking individual in a group

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interbirth interval

the length of time between successive births

21

zoopharmacognosy

the self-medication by animals with plants, soils, and other natural substances

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geophagy

the intentional consumption of soil

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agonistic behaviours

threatening behaviours that are directed toward an opponent or adversary

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affiliative

amicable behaviours that promote social cohesion

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altruistic

behaviour that benefits other members of a group but is either of no benefit to the individual engaged in it or is harmful to that individual

26

ectoparasites

parasites on the outside of the body (e.g. in the fur)

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kin selection

the tendency of individuals to direct beneficial behaviour toward relatives living with the same social group

28

consortships

among primates, temporary affiliations of males and females for the purposes of mating and reproduction; in some species (e.g., chimpanzees), males may forcibly coerce females into a consortship

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reconciliation

the process of making peace after an altercation

30

proceptive behaviours

actions, typically on the part of females, to initiate a sexual interaction; may include facial gestures, limb and body postures, or movements, and sounds