Chapter 12: The Emergence of Anatomically Modern Humans Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: The Emergence of Anatomically Modern Humans Deck (15)
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1

signification

a sign (a character, a word, an image) that identifies an entity or assigns meaning to a situation; for example, a red light at an intersection or a dollar sign

2

population bottleneck

an evolutionary event in which a population is reduced in number, resulting in the loss of genetic variation

3

effective population size

a measure of reproductive potential based on the likelihood that individuals in a population of a given size contribute genes equally to succeeding generations

4

behavioural modernity

having the attributes of modern human behaviour (e.g., cognition, language, symbolism, social relationships)

5

Middle Stone Age

the period spanning 250 000 to 40 000 years ago in Africa; it is associated with archaic and anatomically modern humans

6

blade tools

tools made of long, parallel-sided flakes struck from a prepared core

7

microliths

small, flaked tools made from blades or parts of blades

8

composite tools

tools consisting of two or more components; for example, stone tools hafted onto wooden spear shafts

9

Later Stone Age

the period of time spanning 40 000 to 10 000 years ago in Africa

10

burins

stone tools used to shape bone, wood, antler, and ivory into other tools

11

atlatl

a device fashioned from bone, antler, or wood that increases mechanical advantage in spear-throwing, increasing distance and force

12

entoptic

images that arise from within the eye during altered states of consciousness

13

Paleo-Indians

the name given to the first occupants of North and South America

14

Beringia

an exposed land bridge that connected Siberia and Alaska during the last glacial period when sea levels were lower

15

haplogroups

groups of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor; haplotypes are groups of genes that are inherited together