Flashcards in Chapter 30& 31 Vocab Deck (50)
A natural solid substance with a definite geometric shape.
Two minerals with the same elements, but the elements are bonded together differently.
A means of determining the hardness of a substance (1-10) diamond-hardest(10)
Mohs scale of harness
Splitting of minerals along smooth, flat surfaces.
The breaking of a mineral somewhere other than the cleavage plane.
How's a mineral appears when it reflects light.
The color of a mineral when it's in powdered form.
A measure of density. Describes the change in the volume of water when a dense solid is placed in it.
Contain mostly silicon and oxygen. Most common are Quartz and feldspar.
Contain oxygen and a metal. Industrial metal ores.
Contains carbon and oxygen (co3) most common- calcium corbonate (limestone)
Contains sulfur and a metal. (Pyrite)
Contain sulfur, oxygen, and a metal. (Gypsum)
Molten rock from the Earth's interior.
Come from magma. Make up 95% of rocks in the Earth's crust. (Basalt and granite)
Formed from pieces of other rocks (erosion). Sandstone, shale, limestone.
Formed from pre-existing rocks and extreme hear or pressure. (Marble, slate)
Formed at the earths surface.
Extrusive igneous rocks
Molten material that forms from magma on the earths surface.
Lava that pours out onto the earths surface through a central vent.
Built from layers of lava. Broad based and gently sloping sides. Very large. (Mauna Loa)
Very steep sides. Built from ashes, cinders, and rock. Relatively short. (300m)
Consist of alternating layers of lava, ash, and mud. Steep sides, very large. (Mt. Fuji, mt. St. Helens)
The funnel shaped pit at the top of a volcano.
A large basin shaped depression formed when an explosion destroys the upper portion of a volcano.
Igneous rocks formed from magma that cools.
Intrusive igneous rocks
Vertical column of magma.
Horizontal layers of magma.
Push overlying rock layers upward.
Largest of all the igneous intrusions.
Physically breaking rocks into smaller pieces.
Chemical reactions with water that decomposes rock.
The process of transporting weathered rock by water, wind, or ice.
Rock particles are deposited one layer at a time horizontally.
Composed of microscopic pieces
.05-2mm grains of sand.
Composed of gravel sized particles.
Limestone and evaporites.
Chemical sedimentary rocks
The process of changing one kind of rock into another due to a high temp and/or pressure.
The rocks surrounding a magma intrusion are changed to metamorphic rock.
Large areas of rock are changed due to the process of mountain building.
Have layered mineral bands.
Foliated metamorphic rock
Comes from shale and created at low temps and pressure.
Forms at higher temps and pressure. Generally shiny in appearance.
Distinct alternating light and dark bands.
Lack banding patterns.
Nonfoliated metamorphic rock
Comes from limestone (building)
Comes from sandstone, variety of colors.
A process involving the formation, destruction, alteration, and reformation of rocks due to the earths natural processes.