Flashcards in Chapter 35 Deck (6)
Kyle, age 6 months, is brought to the clinic. His parent says, “I think he hurts. He cries and rolls his head from side to side a lot.” This most likely suggests which feature of pain?
The child’s behaviour indicates the location of the pain. The behaviour does not provide information about the type, severity, or duration. Rolling the head from side to side and pulling at ears indicates pain in the ear.
Which of the following statements represents accurate information about the physiological assessment of children’s pain?
The best indicator of pain in children of all ages
Essential to determine whether a child is telling the truth about pain
Of most value is when children also report having pain
Of limited value as sole indicator of pain
Physiological manifestations of pain may vary considerably, and do not provide a consistent measure of pain. Heart rate may increase or decrease. The same signs that may suggest fear, anxiety, or anger also indicate pain. In individuals with persistent pain the body adapts, and these signs decrease or stabilize. These signs are of limited value and must be viewed in the context of a pain-rating scale, behavioural assessment, and parental report. When the child states that pain exists, it does. That is the truth.
Which statement is true about non-pharmacological strategies for pain management?
They may reduce pain perception.
They make pharmacological strategies unnecessary.
They usually take too long to implement.
They trick children into believing they do not have pain.
Non-pharmacological techniques provide coping strategies that may help reduce pain perception, make the pain more tolerable, decrease anxiety, and enhance the effectiveness of analgesics. They should be learned before the pain occurs. With severe pain, it is best to use both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures for pain control. The non-pharmacological strategy should be matched with the child’s pain severity and taught to the child before the onset of the painful experience. Some of the techniques may facilitate the child’s experience with mild pain, but the child will still know that discomfort is present.
Which drug is usually the best choice for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for a child in the immediate post-operative period?
The most commonly prescribed medications for PCA are morphine, hydromorphone, and fentanyl. Parenteral use of codeine is not recommended. Methadone is not available in parenteral form in Canada. Meperidine is not used for continuous and extended pain relief.
A lumbar puncture is needed on a school-age child. Which of the following medications is the most appropriate to apply to provide analgesia during this procedure?
Tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine (TAC) 15 minutes before procedure
Transdermal fentanyl (Duragesic) patch immediately before procedure
Eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) 1 hour before procedure
EMLA 30 minutes before procedure
EMLA is an effective analgesic agent when applied to the skin 60 minutes before a procedure. It eliminates or reduces the pain from most procedures involving skin punctures. TAC provides skin anaesthesia about 15 minutes after application to non-intact skin. The gel can be placed on the wound for suturing. Transdermal fentanyl patches are useful for continuous pain control, not rapid pain control. For maximal effectiveness, EMLA must be applied approximately 60 minutes in advance.