Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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16

Orthodromic Conduction

Axonal conduction in the normal direction-from the cell body toward the terminal buttons

16

Bregma

A reference point on the stereotaxic atlas, on top of the skull where two of the major sutures intersect.

17

Nodes of Ranvier

The gaps between adjacent myelin segments on an axon

17

Stereotaxic Instrument

Has two parts: head holder and the electrode holder. Electrode holder allows to be moved in the three dimensions: anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and lateral-medial.

18

Saltatory Conduction

Conduction of an action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next along a myelinated axon

18

Aspiration

The cortical tissue is drawn off by suction through a fine-tipped handleheld glass pipette.

19

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Diseases that damage the nervous system

19

Radio-Frequency Current

Small subcortical lesions are made by this technique when high frequency current is passed through the target tissue from the tip of an electrode.

20

Motor Neurons

Neurons that synapse on skeletal muscles

20

Knife Cuts

Used to eliminate conduction in a nerve or tract. Tiny cut can accomplish this without extensive damage to surrounding tissue.

21

Inter-neurons

Passive and decremental conduction

21

Cryogenic Blockade

When coolant is pumped through an implanted cryoprobe, neurons near the tip are cooled until they stop firing. No structural damage.

22

Hodgkin-Huxley Model

A mathematical model (a type of scientific model) that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated. It is a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that approximates the electrical characteristics of excitable cells such as neurons and cardiac myocytes.

22

Cryoprobe

Probe in the cryogenic blockade technique

23

Dendritic spines

Tiny nodules of various shapes that are located on the surface of many dendrites and are the sites of most excitatory synapses in the mature mammalian brain

23

Unilateral Lesion

Lesions restricted to one half of the brain

24

Axosomatic Synapses

Synapses of each terminal buttons on somas

24

Bilateral Lesion

Lesions that involving both sides of the brain

25

Dendrodendritic synapses

Types of synapse that is capable of transmission in either direction

25

Bipolar Electrode

Stimulates the brain through two insulated wires wound tightly together and cut at the end.

26

Axoaxonic synapses

Types of synapse that helps mediate presynaptic facilitation and inhabitation

26

Intracellular Unit Recording

Provides a moment-by-moment record of the graded fluctuations in one neuron?s membrane potential

27

Presynaptic Facilitation

Axoaxonic synapses that increase effect on one neuron to another

27

Extracellular Unit Recording

Provides a record of firing of a neuron but no info about the neuron?s membrane potential.

28

Presynaptic Inhibition

Decreases effects of one neuron to another

28

Multiple-Unit Recording

Graph of the total number of recorded action potentials per unit of time

29

Directed Synapses

Synapses at which the site of neurotransmitter release the site of neurotransmitter reception are in close proximity

29

Invasive EEG Recording

EEG signals are recorded through large implanted electrodes rather than through scalp electrodes. Cortical EEG signals are frequently recorded through stainless steel skull screws whereas subcortical EEG signals are typically recorded through stereotaxically implanted wire electrodes.

30

Non directed Synapses

Synapses at which the site of neurotransmitter release and the site of neurotransmitter reception are not close together

30

Intraperitoneally

When drugs are injected hyperodermically into the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen.