Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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46

Reuptake

The drawing back into the terminal button of neurotransmitter molecules after their release into the synapse; the more common of the two mechanisms for deactivating a released neurotransmitter

46

Brainbow

The process by which individual neurons in the brain can be distinguished from neighboring neurons using fluorescent proteins.

47

Enzymatic Degradation

The breakdown of chemicals by enzymes-one of two mechanisms for deactivating released neurotransmitters

47

Transgenic Mice

When mice contain the genetic material of another species

48

Enzymes

Proteins that stimulate or inhibit biochemical reactions without being affected by them

48

Intelligence Quotient

An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence.

49

Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that is created by the addition of an acetyl group to a choline molecule

49

Behavioral Paradigm

Single set of procedures developed for the investigation of a particular behavioral phenomenon

50

Acetylcholinesterase

The enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

50

Single-Test Approach

Goal was to discriminate between patients with psychological problems resulting from structural brain damage and those with psychological problems resulting from functional rather than structural.

51

Gap Junction

Narrow spaces between adjacent neurons that are bridged by fine tubular channels containing cytoplasm through which electrical signals and small molecules can pass readily

51

Standardized-Test-Battery Approach

Goal to id brain-damaged patients but the testing involved standardized sets rather than a single test. Most common of this, Halstead-Reitan

52

Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

A class of small-molecule neurotransmitters, which includes the amino acids glutamate and GABA

52

Customized-Test-Battery Approach

Not just to id patients with brain damage but the objective is to characterize the nature of the psychological deficits of each brain-damaged patient. Use common battery tests then a custom set of tests.

53

Glutamate

The brain’s most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter, whose excessive release causes much of the brain damage resulting from cerebral ischemia

53

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery

Most widely used Standarized-test-battery approach. Brain-damaged patients tend to perform poorly on this.

54

Aspartate

An amino acid neurotransmitter that is a constituent of many of the proteins that we eat

54

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Helps neuropsychologists to infer later on other tests when they know the IQ. Published in 1955

55

Glycine

An amino acid neurotransmitter that is a constituent of many of the proteins that we eat

55

Digit Span

Most widely used test of short memory. Ids the longest sequence of random digits that a patient can repeat correctly 50% of the time. Most ppl have a 7 digit span

56

Gamma-aminobutyric Acid

The amino acid neurotransmitter that is synthesized from glutamate; the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system

56

Token Test

20 tokens of 2 diff shapes, 2 sizes, and five colors. Examiners says to touch a certain, size, shape and color.

57

Monoamine Neurotransmitters

Small molecule neurotransmitters that are synthesized from monoamines and comprise two classes: catecholamines and indolamines

57

Sodium Amytal Test

Injecting the anethtic sodium amytal into either of the carotoid arteries in the neck. Temp anesthetizes the same-side hemisphere while leaving the other side unaffected. Several language tests are administered while this is happening.

58

Dopamine

One of three catecholamine neurotransmitters; dopaminergic neurons are damaged in Parkinsons disease

58

Dichotic Listening Test

Sequences of spoken digits are presented to subjects through stereo headphones. Three digits are presented to one ear and three diff to the other ear. Then they are asked to repeat as many of the six digits as they can. Report more that are connected to the language center, which was deteremined by the sodium amytal test.

59

Epinephrine

One of the three catecholamine neurotransmitters

59

Contralateral

Projecting from one side of the body to the other

60

Norepinephrine

One of the three catecholamine neurotransmitters

60

Ipsilateral

Situated or appearing on or affecting the same side of the body