Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (37)
What is digestion?
The mechanical and chemical process of breaking down food into substances that can be used by the body.
What is absorption?
The action of taking nutrients into the blood stream
What is metabolism?
The total of all processes in the body
What is the total of all processes in the body?
What is an enzyme?
A catalyst for a chemical reaction
How can enzymes be easily recognized?
Their names often have the ending "-ase"
What is an enzyme's purpose in food digestion?
They speed up the chemical reactions that break down food molecules, and aid the breaking down of food molecules
What is the function of the pancreas?
Accessory organ which manufactures digestive enzymes.
What is the function of the stomach?
It churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass
What is the function of the liver?
Manufactures bile to help digest fats
What is the function of the small intestine?
Primary site of nutrient digestion and absorption
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Stores bile until needed
In what order does food travel through the small intestine?
In what part of the small intestine does the least amount of absorption occur
In what order does the food go through the large intestine?
The ascending (going up) colon first
the transverse (going across) colon second
the descending (going down) colon last
Where does most digestion and absorption take place in the digestive tract?
the small intestine
Where is the gastro esophageal sphincter?
It is located between the end of the esophagus and the stomach
Where is the pyloric sphincter?
It is located between the stomach and the beginning of the small intestine (Duodenum)
What is peristalsis?
The involuntary contracting of the muscles of the intestine or another canal
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
Mechanical digestion is the physical process of breaking down food into smaller pieces, while chemical digestion uses chemical reactions in order to further break down food into smaller nutrients.
What is the primary function of the colon (large intestine)?
To reabsorb fluids and process waste products
What are three examples of mechanical digestion?
Chewing, stomach churning, peristalsis
What are two examples of chemical digestion?
Food mixing with enzymes in saliva
Pancreas releasing enzymes
Stomach acid breaking down food
What are the secretions that entire the GI tract to help with digestion?
What is bile?
Bile is a fluid that is produced to aid the breakdown of fatty acids
Where is bile produced?
Bile is produced in the liver
Where is bile stored?
Bile is stored in the gallbladder
What macronutrient does bile help to break down?
Why are villi important in the small intestine?
The villi help to increase the surface area of the intestinal walls, which helps to increase absorption.