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Food and nutrition Exam 1 > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (33)
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1

What are the names of three monosaccharides ?

Sugar, Fructose, Galactose

2

What are the names of three disaccharides?

Lactose, maltose, sucrose

3

Where does carbohydrate digestion begin?

The mouth where salivary enzymes begin breaking it down

4

How are carbohydrates digested?

mouth- chewing, salivary enzymes break down
stomach- chyme and churning occurs
small intestine- pancreatic juice is released
villi secrete enzymes
once carbs are broken down into single glucose units they are absorbed into intestinal cells, then into the blood stream

5

Once in the blood, what happens to a broken down carbohydrate?

Once in the blood, the glucose may be used for energy through catabolism or stored for later energy through anabolism

6

Can glucose be used both aerobically and anaerobically?

Yes

7

What is glycogen?

Storage form of glucose in bodily tissues, stored in the liver

8

What is glycogen's role in the body?

It stores glucose to raise blood-glucose levels when blood sugar falls too low.

9

What is fiber?

The portion of a plant that cannot be fully broken down by digestive enzymes

10

What are the food sources of soluble fiber?

beans, oat, bran

11

What are the food sources of insoluble fiber?

Whole grains, brown rice, cereals

12

What are the health advantages of insoluble fiber?

speeds up digestion, adds bulk to stool, aids with bowl regularity

13

What are the health advantages of soluble fiber?

It attaches to cholesterol particles and carries them out of the body, which lowers cholesterol

14

What is the daily recommendation for fiber?

38g for males
25g for females

15

What are the problems with too much fiber?

It can cause bloating, gas, constipation and diarrhea

16

What percentage of daily calories should come from carbohydrates?

45-65%

17

Which food groups contain carbs?

Dairy, fruits, grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, meats, and sugary sweets

18

What relationship is there between sugar intake and tooth decay, hyperactivity, and obesity?

While high sugar intake is directly related to tooth decay and obesity, there is no link between sugar intake and hyperactivity

19

What is lactose intolerance?

Inability to digest lactose

20

Which foods are involved with a lactose intolerance?

All dairy products containing lactose

21

What are possible remedies for a lactose intolerance?

Lactaid products, a dietary supplement for lactase, or avoidance of dairy

22

What does "protein sparing" mean?

It means the body uses other sources of energy rather than protein

23

What are three types of diabetes?

Type 1, Type 2, and gestational.

24

What are the warning signs of diabetes?

frequent urination
increased thirst
fatigue
slow healing
numbness or pain in the hands and feet
increased hunger

25

What are the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs when someone stops producing insulin, and Type 2 occurs when someone's body stops responding to the insulin produced

26

How is diabetes treated?

Weight reduction, insulin medication, or dietary changes, Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications as well.

27

What is hypoglycemia?

Occurs when blood sugars have fallen low enough that action needs to be taken in order for blood glucose to raise.
(LOW BLOOD SUGAR)

28

What are the names used for sugar on a food label?

fructose, glucose, and galactose

29

How does insulin work in the body?

Insulin is a hormone that is responsible for lowering blood sugar by converting glucose to energy or storing it
(lowers blood sugar)

30

How does glucagon work in the body?

Glucagon is the hormone responsible for the process of turning stored glycogen (glucose molecules) into glucose to raise blood sugar
(raises blood sugar)