Chapter 4 - Body Organization And Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Body Organization And Homeostasis Deck (21):
0

Epithelial structure

Free membrane for protection, secretion, absorption

Basement membrane is cell-free; attaches free membrane to tissues below

1

Epithelial shapes

Squamous: flattened, scale like
- thin cells allow for efficient diffusion
- smooth surface reduces friction

Cuboidal
-provide some protection
-involved in secretion and/or absorption

Columnar
-absorption and secretion

2

Connective tissue functions

Bind tissues
Support (cartilage, bone)
Transport (blood)
Energy storage (adipose tissue)

3

Connective tissue structure

Cells within extra cellular matrix

Matrix of protein fibers and ground substances

Fiber
- collagen: strong, resist stretching
- elastic
- reticular : branching strands of collagen for support

4

3 types of Muscle tissues

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

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Skeletal muscle tissue function

Has striated cells with multiple nuclei
Occurs in muscles attached to skeleton
Functions in voluntary movement of body

6

Smooth muscle function

Has spindle- shaped cells, each with a single nucleus

Cells have no striations

Functions in movement of substances in lumens of body

Is involuntary

Is found in blood vessel walls and walls if digestive tract

7

Cardiac muscle

Has branching, striated cells, each work a single nucleus

Occurs in the wall of the heart

Functions in the pumping of blood

Is involuntary

8

Skin functions

Protect from pathogens, chemicals, and physic factors

Prevents water loss

Regulates temperature - through sweating

Synthesis of vitamin d

Detecting stimuli: touch, heat, pain

9

Skin structures

Epidermis and dermis

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Epidermis structure

Outermost layer; thin

Cells are flat, dry, and dead

Filled with protein keratin that resists bacteria and fungi

Lose 35,000 cells per minute

Replaced by dividing cells from dermis

Site for lipid-soluble drug delivery

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Dermis structure

Inner layer; much thicker

Contains blood vessels for nourishments (lacking in epidermis)

Contains sensory receptors, oil glands, nerve fibers, sweat glands; hairs/hair follicles

Lower layer with connective tissue: collagen and elastic fibers, so skin stretches. Which declines with age


12

What factors promote skin cancer

Too much ultra violet radiation

13

Basal cell carcinoma

Derived from stem cells gone awry, is the more common type of skin cancer and is the most curable

14

Melanoma

Type if skin cancer deceived from melanocytes, is extremely serious

15

Homeostasis

Is the body's ability to maintain a relative constancy of its internal environment by adjusting its physiological processes.

16

Give an example of homeostasis

The ability of the body to regulate the acid-base balance of the body. Co2 enters blood, it combines with water to create carbonic acid. However, blood is buffered - pH stays within normal range as long as the lungs are busy excreting carbon dioxide. Kidneys backs up the two mechanism, which gets rid of wide range of acidic and basic substances, and therefore, adjust the pH

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Exocrine gland

Glands with ducts that secrete their product onto the outer surface or into a cavity

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Endocrine gland

Secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

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Fribroblasts

Loose fibrous and dense fibrous connective tissues cells located some distance from one another and separated by a jellyfish like ground substance containing white collagen fibers and yellow elastic fibers

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Adipose tissue

Is a special type of loose connective tissue in which the cells enlarge and store fat.