chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Solution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Solution Deck (60):
1

for a reaction to occur, species must

collide

2

solvent: component that has the same ... as the ...

physical state; solution

3

solute: substance being ... to form a solution; typically in ... than the solvent; often a ... but can also be a ... or ...

dissolved; lesser amounts; solid; gas; liquid

4

solution: a ... mixture; often composed of substances ...

homogeneous; dissolved in water

5

most common solvent:

water

6

solutions with water as solvent:

aqueous solutions

7

most ionic compounds:

electrolytes

8

strong electrolytes separate

Completely into ions

9

;solutions of strong electrolytes are good

conductors of electricity

10

compounds that dissolve but do not conduct electricity are .... they do not dissociate into ions when ...

nonelectrolytes; dissolved

11

molecular compounds that only partially .. in solution are called ...

ionize; weak electrolytes

12

acetic acid is a

weak electrolyte

13

double arrow indicates that the reaction proceeds in

both directions

14

acids that ionize completely are known as

strong acids

15

strong and weak acids are also

strong and weak electrolytes

16

weak electrolytes produce only a ... when dissolved in water

few ions

17

solubility: the concentration of solute that exists in ... with an ... of that substance

equilibrium; excess

18

(soluble ionic compounds) no exceptions:

group 1 cations and ammonium; nitrates; perchlorates; acetates

19

(soluble ionic compounds) exceptions:

chlorides, bromides, iodides (except Ag, dimercury, lead (II))
sulfates (except, dimercury, lead (II), Sr2+, barium)

20

(insoluble ionic compounds) with exceptions of only group 1 cations and ammonium

carbonates; phosphates

21

(insoluble ionic compounds) with exceptions group 1 cations, ammonium, and others

hydroxides (except group 1, ammonium, Sr2+, barium)

22

solubility must be determined

experimentally

23

a precipitation reaction involves the formation of an .... from the reaction of ...

insoluble product(s); soluble reactants

24

the products, if any, of many reactions of ionic compounds can be predicted from

solubility rules

25

overall equation: shows all of the reactants and products in

undissociated form

26

complete ionic equation: more ... description; an equation in which strong electrolytes are shown as ... in the solution

accurate; ions

27

complete ionic equation represents the species as tey

exist in solution

28

spectator ions: do not participate in any

chemical achange

29

net ionic equation: shows only those species in the solution that actually

undergo a chemical change

30

net ionic equations are useful in writing ...

acid-base reactions

31

water is not present as ..., can be written as a product in a ...

ions; net ionic equation

32

concentration of a solution: the amount of ... in a given quantity of that ...

solute; solution

33

molarity: number of ... of solute per ... of solution

moles; liter

34

molarity is a measure of

concentration

35

molarity is based on the ... olume fo solution, not on the volume of ...

volume; added solvent

36

To prepare a solution, a given mass of solute is measured, added to a ... Or..., some... is added to ... the solute, and additional ... is added until the final desired volume is ...

volumetric flask; graduated sylinder; solvent; dissolve; solvent; achieved

37

solutions of known molarity can be prepared from a weighted sample dissolved in a solvent, then ... to a known volume of solution

diluted

38

the molarity of a solution provides the ... that converts between .... and ...

relation; volume of solution; moles of solute

39

it is common to use square brackets around a species to imply

concentration of this species in units of molarity

40

less .. solutions are often prepared from more ... stock solutions

concentrated; highly concentrated

41

the difference between preparing a dilute solution and preparing a regular solution is that the concentration of the new diluted solution is based on a known ... of the concentrated solution rather that on the ...

volume; mass of the solute

42

pipet: a calibrated device designed to deliver an .... of liquid with ...

accurately known volume; high precision

43

m1v1=

m2v2

44

dilution of a given amount of a concentrated solution does not change the number of

moles of solute

45

the moles of solute in the concentrated solution are the same as in th

dilute solution

46

the only difference between the two solutions is tha tmore solvent is present in th

dilute solution

47

m1v1=m2v2 cannot be used for problems involving

chemical reactions

48

solution stoichiomtry equations are similar to ch 3 problems, but the amounts are calculated from the ... of solutions of known ... rather than from ...

volumes; concentrations; masses

49

titration: a procedure to determine the ... of one substance by adding a measured amount of a ....

quantity; second substance

50

equivalence point: the point at which stoichiometrically ... of the two reactants are present

equivalent amounts

51

an acid-base titration is a titration n which the amount of an unknown acid or base is determined by adding a .... of a known ... of ... or ... to ... the unknown

given amount; concentration; base; acid; neutralize

52

indicators are used to detect the ... in acid-base titrations

equivalence point

53

an indicator is a compound that changes ...as an ... solution becomes ... or vice versa

color; acidic; basic

54

the point at which the indicator ... color is called the ....

changes; end point

55

a standard solution is a solution with an accurately known

concentration

56

volumetric analysis: a chemical analysis that involves measurement of the ... of a ... or ...

volume; solution; substance

57

a ... is chosen to standardize an acid

high-purity base

58

a precipitation reaction can be used to isolate a ... from a solution

desired ion

59

gravimetric analysis is a procedure in which one component of a solution is selectively

precipitated, separated from solution, dried, and weighed

60

one of the most widely used gravimetric procedures is the determination of halides by the addition of ... to precipitate the ...

silver nitrate; silver halides