Flashcards in chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Solution Deck (60):
for a reaction to occur, species must
solvent: component that has the same ... as the ...
physical state; solution
solute: substance being ... to form a solution; typically in ... than the solvent; often a ... but can also be a ... or ...
dissolved; lesser amounts; solid; gas; liquid
solution: a ... mixture; often composed of substances ...
homogeneous; dissolved in water
most common solvent:
solutions with water as solvent:
most ionic compounds:
strong electrolytes separate
Completely into ions
;solutions of strong electrolytes are good
conductors of electricity
compounds that dissolve but do not conduct electricity are .... they do not dissociate into ions when ...
molecular compounds that only partially .. in solution are called ...
ionize; weak electrolytes
acetic acid is a
double arrow indicates that the reaction proceeds in
acids that ionize completely are known as
strong and weak acids are also
strong and weak electrolytes
weak electrolytes produce only a ... when dissolved in water
solubility: the concentration of solute that exists in ... with an ... of that substance
(soluble ionic compounds) no exceptions:
group 1 cations and ammonium; nitrates; perchlorates; acetates
(soluble ionic compounds) exceptions:
chlorides, bromides, iodides (except Ag, dimercury, lead (II))
sulfates (except, dimercury, lead (II), Sr2+, barium)
(insoluble ionic compounds) with exceptions of only group 1 cations and ammonium
(insoluble ionic compounds) with exceptions group 1 cations, ammonium, and others
hydroxides (except group 1, ammonium, Sr2+, barium)
solubility must be determined
a precipitation reaction involves the formation of an .... from the reaction of ...
insoluble product(s); soluble reactants
the products, if any, of many reactions of ionic compounds can be predicted from
overall equation: shows all of the reactants and products in
complete ionic equation: more ... description; an equation in which strong electrolytes are shown as ... in the solution
complete ionic equation represents the species as tey
exist in solution
spectator ions: do not participate in any
net ionic equation: shows only those species in the solution that actually
undergo a chemical change
net ionic equations are useful in writing ...
water is not present as ..., can be written as a product in a ...
ions; net ionic equation
concentration of a solution: the amount of ... in a given quantity of that ...
molarity: number of ... of solute per ... of solution
molarity is a measure of
molarity is based on the ... olume fo solution, not on the volume of ...
volume; added solvent
To prepare a solution, a given mass of solute is measured, added to a ... Or..., some... is added to ... the solute, and additional ... is added until the final desired volume is ...
volumetric flask; graduated sylinder; solvent; dissolve; solvent; achieved
solutions of known molarity can be prepared from a weighted sample dissolved in a solvent, then ... to a known volume of solution
the molarity of a solution provides the ... that converts between .... and ...
relation; volume of solution; moles of solute
it is common to use square brackets around a species to imply
concentration of this species in units of molarity
less .. solutions are often prepared from more ... stock solutions
concentrated; highly concentrated
the difference between preparing a dilute solution and preparing a regular solution is that the concentration of the new diluted solution is based on a known ... of the concentrated solution rather that on the ...
volume; mass of the solute
pipet: a calibrated device designed to deliver an .... of liquid with ...
accurately known volume; high precision
dilution of a given amount of a concentrated solution does not change the number of
moles of solute
the moles of solute in the concentrated solution are the same as in th
the only difference between the two solutions is tha tmore solvent is present in th
m1v1=m2v2 cannot be used for problems involving
solution stoichiomtry equations are similar to ch 3 problems, but the amounts are calculated from the ... of solutions of known ... rather than from ...
volumes; concentrations; masses
titration: a procedure to determine the ... of one substance by adding a measured amount of a ....
quantity; second substance
equivalence point: the point at which stoichiometrically ... of the two reactants are present
an acid-base titration is a titration n which the amount of an unknown acid or base is determined by adding a .... of a known ... of ... or ... to ... the unknown
given amount; concentration; base; acid; neutralize
indicators are used to detect the ... in acid-base titrations
an indicator is a compound that changes ...as an ... solution becomes ... or vice versa
color; acidic; basic
the point at which the indicator ... color is called the ....
changes; end point
a standard solution is a solution with an accurately known
volumetric analysis: a chemical analysis that involves measurement of the ... of a ... or ...
volume; solution; substance
a ... is chosen to standardize an acid
a precipitation reaction can be used to isolate a ... from a solution
gravimetric analysis is a procedure in which one component of a solution is selectively
precipitated, separated from solution, dried, and weighed