Flashcards in chapter 1: introduction to chemistry Deck (111):

1

## chemistry: study of matter and its interactions with

### other matter and with energy

2

## foundation of chemistry is

### experimentation

3

## chemistry is an experimental science in which we derive knowledge from

### carefully planned and performed experiments

4

## to formulate ideas for experiments, scientists draw on

### experience, using experimental data and theory

5

## hypothesis is a possible

### explanation for an event

6

## law: a statement that can summarize

### a large number of observations

7

## theory: an explanation of

### the laws of nature

8

## theories are subject to change when

### new data becomes available

9

## matter: anything with

### mass and volume

10

## mass: amount of

### matter in an object

11

## weight: force of .... between a particular object and ....

### attraction; another object

12

## weight is also the measure of the

### gravitational pull on an object

13

## balance to measure

### mass

14

## scale to measure

### weight

15

## property: observations or

### measurements regarding matter

16

## physical properties: properties that can be measured without

### changing the composition of the sample

17

## examples of physical properties:

### mass, volume, color, phase

18

## chemical properties: describe

### reactivity of a material

19

## examples of chemical properties:

### explosiveness, flammability, lack of reactivity

20

## physical change: does not change the

### composition/ identity of a substance

21

## examples of physical change

### freezing, melting, boiling

22

## chemical change: involves the transformation of matter into

### different substances

23

## examples of chemical change

### rusting, burning

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## extensive properties: depend on the

### size of the sample

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## extensive properties measure how much ... is in a particular sample

### matter

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## examples of extensive properties:

### mass, volume

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## intensive properties: not dependent on the

### size of the sample

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## intensive properties depend on

### what the sample is

29

## examples of intensive properties:

### colors, melting points, densities

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## intensive properties can be used to

### identify a substance

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## substance: chemically the

### same throughout

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## element: cannot be broken down into

### simpler, stable substances

33

## compound: can be

### broken down into simpler, stable substance

34

## matter can be classified by:

### chemical composition, physical state, color, etc.

35

## compounds are uniform in

### composition and properties throughout

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## mixture: matter that can be separated into two or more substances by differences in the

### physical properties of the components

37

## homogenous mixture:

### uniform in composition

38

## examples of homogenous mixtures:

### sugar-water solution, air

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## heterogenous mixtures:

### not uniform in composition

40

## examples of heterogenous mixtures:

### mixture of iron and sand, vegetable soup, salt and pepper

41

## samples of the same mixture can have different ..., unlike ...

### compositions; substances

42

## alloy: a solid solution that consists of a

### metal and another substance, usually another metal

43

## substance: matter that cannot be separated into

### component parts by a physical process

44

## compounds: substances that can be decomposed into simpler substances or into their elements by

### chemical processes

45

## compounds always contain the same elements in the

### same proportions

46

## all samples of a compound have the same

### intensive properties

47

## symbols for the elements are abbreviations for their

### names

48

## numerical measurements have 4 aspects:

### object, value; units; reliability

49

## reliability:

### accuracy and precision

50

## accuracy: expresses how close a measurement is to the

### correct or accepted value

51

## precision: refers to the closeness of a set of measurements to

### each other, but not necessarily the accepted value

52

## accurate: number has a small

### error

53

## precise: number has small

### uncertainty

54

## significant figures: used to display the

### uncertainty of results

55

## significant figures: all digits known with certainty, plus one more digit that is

### not certain

56

## uncertainty of final digit is

### ± 1

57

## nonzero digits are

### significant

58

## zeros between nonzero digits are

### significant

59

## with no decimal point to the right of a zero, the trailing zero may or may not be

### significant (clarified by scientific notation)

60

## if there is a decimal point, leading zeros are ..., but zeros at the end of the number are ...

### insignificant; significant

61

## number of sig figs in a calculated value results from the... of the ...and the ...that were used to attain the final value

### uncertainties; measurements; operations

62

## addition/subtraction sig figs: answer has the same number of decimal places as the component with the

### least number of decimal places

63

## multiplication/division sig figs: answer has the same number of sig figs as the component with the

### least number of significant digits

64

## (rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig is

### round down

65

## (rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig = 5,

### round to even

66

## (rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig is > 5

### round up

67

## density: ratio of

### mass to volume

68

## three kinds of numbers never limit sig fits:

### counted numbers/tallies, defined numbers, power of ten

69

## quantities: describe... and illustrate ...

### properties; precise information

70

## units: standards by which

### measurements are compared

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## SI units: 7 base units which define

### length, mass, time, temperature, amount of substance, electrical current, luminous intensity

72

## length:

### meter

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## mass:

### kilogram

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## time:

### second

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## temperature

### kelvin

76

## amount of substance:

### mole

77

## electrical current:

### ampere

78

## luminous intensity:

### candela

79

## base units can be

### reproduced in labs (exception: kilogram)

80

## derived units: physical quantities that can be expressed as a

### combination of base units

81

## when multiplying by conversion factors, the ... are what change, along with the ....

### units; numeric value

82

## (prefixes) yotta- Y

### 10^24

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## (prefixes) zeta- Z

### 10^21

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## (prefixes) exa- E

### 10^18

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## (prefixes) peta- P

### 10^15

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## (prefixes) tera-T

### 10^12

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## (prefixes) giga-G

### 10^9

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## (prefixes) mega- M

### 10^6

89

## (prefixes) kilo- k

### 10^3

90

## (prefixes) hecto- h

### 10^2

91

## (prefixes) deka- da

### 10^1

92

## (prefixes) deci- d

### 10^-1

93

## (prefixes) centi- c

### 10^-2

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## (prefixes) milli- m

### 10^-33

95

## (prefixes) micro- µ

### 10^-6

96

## (prefixes) nano- n

### 10^-9

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## (prefixes) pico- p

### 10^-12

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## (prefixes) femto- f

### 10^-15

99

## (prefixes) atto- a

### 10^-18

100

## (prefixes) zepto- z

### 10^-21

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## (prefixes) yocto- y

### 10^-24

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## unit conversion factor: fraction in which the numerator is a quantity that is equal or equivalent to the quantity in

### the denominator but expressed in different units

103

## to know what conversion factor should be used, determine which units should be ... and which units you are attempting to ...

### canceled; attain

104

## standard unit for volume is

### m^3

105

## density is a ... property that can help

### physical; identify substances

106

## density can't be used to convert between

### different substances

107

## standard unit for density:

### kg/ m^3

108

## none of the relationships between the English and SI units is ...; effects ...

### exact; sig figs

109

## conversion factors between Celsius and Fahrenheit

###
TF = TC x (1.8℉/1.0℃) + 32 ℉

TC = (TF - 32 ℉) x (1.0℃/1.8℉)

110

## absolute zero:

### -273.15 degrees C

111