chapter 1: introduction to chemistry Flashcards Preview

AP Chemistry > chapter 1: introduction to chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 1: introduction to chemistry Deck (111):
1

chemistry: study of matter and its interactions with

other matter and with energy

2

foundation of chemistry is

experimentation

3

chemistry is an experimental science in which we derive knowledge from

carefully planned and performed experiments

4

to formulate ideas for experiments, scientists draw on

experience, using experimental data and theory

5

hypothesis is a possible

explanation for an event

6

law: a statement that can summarize

a large number of observations

7

theory: an explanation of

the laws of nature

8

theories are subject to change when

new data becomes available

9

matter: anything with

mass and volume

10

mass: amount of

matter in an object

11

weight: force of .... between a particular object and ....

attraction; another object

12

weight is also the measure of the

gravitational pull on an object

13

balance to measure

mass

14

scale to measure

weight

15

property: observations or

measurements regarding matter

16

physical properties: properties that can be measured without

changing the composition of the sample

17

examples of physical properties:

mass, volume, color, phase

18

chemical properties: describe

reactivity of a material

19

examples of chemical properties:

explosiveness, flammability, lack of reactivity

20

physical change: does not change the

composition/ identity of a substance

21

examples of physical change

freezing, melting, boiling

22

chemical change: involves the transformation of matter into

different substances

23

examples of chemical change

rusting, burning

24

extensive properties: depend on the

size of the sample

25

extensive properties measure how much ... is in a particular sample

matter

26

examples of extensive properties:

mass, volume

27

intensive properties: not dependent on the

size of the sample

28

intensive properties depend on

what the sample is

29

examples of intensive properties:

colors, melting points, densities

30

intensive properties can be used to

identify a substance

31

substance: chemically the

same throughout

32

element: cannot be broken down into

simpler, stable substances

33

compound: can be

broken down into simpler, stable substance

34

matter can be classified by:

chemical composition, physical state, color, etc.

35

compounds are uniform in

composition and properties throughout

36

mixture: matter that can be separated into two or more substances by differences in the

physical properties of the components

37

homogenous mixture:

uniform in composition

38

examples of homogenous mixtures:

sugar-water solution, air

39

heterogenous mixtures:

not uniform in composition

40

examples of heterogenous mixtures:

mixture of iron and sand, vegetable soup, salt and pepper

41

samples of the same mixture can have different ..., unlike ...

compositions; substances

42

alloy: a solid solution that consists of a

metal and another substance, usually another metal

43

substance: matter that cannot be separated into

component parts by a physical process

44

compounds: substances that can be decomposed into simpler substances or into their elements by

chemical processes

45

compounds always contain the same elements in the

same proportions

46

all samples of a compound have the same

intensive properties

47

symbols for the elements are abbreviations for their

names

48

numerical measurements have 4 aspects:

object, value; units; reliability

49

reliability:

accuracy and precision

50

accuracy: expresses how close a measurement is to the

correct or accepted value

51

precision: refers to the closeness of a set of measurements to

each other, but not necessarily the accepted value

52

accurate: number has a small

error

53

precise: number has small

uncertainty

54

significant figures: used to display the

uncertainty of results

55

significant figures: all digits known with certainty, plus one more digit that is

not certain

56

uncertainty of final digit is

± 1

57

nonzero digits are

significant

58

zeros between nonzero digits are

significant

59

with no decimal point to the right of a zero, the trailing zero may or may not be

significant (clarified by scientific notation)

60

if there is a decimal point, leading zeros are ..., but zeros at the end of the number are ...

insignificant; significant

61

number of sig figs in a calculated value results from the... of the ...and the ...that were used to attain the final value

uncertainties; measurements; operations

62

addition/subtraction sig figs: answer has the same number of decimal places as the component with the

least number of decimal places

63

multiplication/division sig figs: answer has the same number of sig figs as the component with the

least number of significant digits

64

(rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig is

round down

65

(rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig = 5,

round to even

66

(rounding rules) if digit after the last sig fig is > 5

round up

67

density: ratio of

mass to volume

68

three kinds of numbers never limit sig fits:

counted numbers/tallies, defined numbers, power of ten

69

quantities: describe... and illustrate ...

properties; precise information

70

units: standards by which

measurements are compared

71

SI units: 7 base units which define

length, mass, time, temperature, amount of substance, electrical current, luminous intensity

72

length:

meter

73

mass:

kilogram

74

time:

second

75

temperature

kelvin

76

amount of substance:

mole

77

electrical current:

ampere

78

luminous intensity:

candela

79

base units can be

reproduced in labs (exception: kilogram)

80

derived units: physical quantities that can be expressed as a

combination of base units

81

when multiplying by conversion factors, the ... are what change, along with the ....

units; numeric value

82

(prefixes) yotta- Y

10^24

83

(prefixes) zeta- Z

10^21

84

(prefixes) exa- E

10^18

85

(prefixes) peta- P

10^15

86

(prefixes) tera-T

10^12

87

(prefixes) giga-G

10^9

88

(prefixes) mega- M

10^6

89

(prefixes) kilo- k

10^3

90

(prefixes) hecto- h

10^2

91

(prefixes) deka- da

10^1

92

(prefixes) deci- d

10^-1

93

(prefixes) centi- c

10^-2

94

(prefixes) milli- m

10^-33

95

(prefixes) micro- µ

10^-6

96

(prefixes) nano- n

10^-9

97

(prefixes) pico- p

10^-12

98

(prefixes) femto- f

10^-15

99

(prefixes) atto- a

10^-18

100

(prefixes) zepto- z

10^-21

101

(prefixes) yocto- y

10^-24

102

unit conversion factor: fraction in which the numerator is a quantity that is equal or equivalent to the quantity in

the denominator but expressed in different units

103

to know what conversion factor should be used, determine which units should be ... and which units you are attempting to ...

canceled; attain

104

standard unit for volume is

m^3

105

density is a ... property that can help

physical; identify substances

106

density can't be used to convert between

different substances

107

standard unit for density:

kg/ m^3

108

none of the relationships between the English and SI units is ...; effects ...

exact; sig figs

109

conversion factors between Celsius and Fahrenheit

TF = TC x (1.8℉/1.0℃) + 32 ℉
TC = (TF - 32 ℉) x (1.0℃/1.8℉)

110

absolute zero:

-273.15 degrees C

111

conversion between Celsius and kelvin:

Tk = Tc + 273.15