Quarterly Review (up to ch. 10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quarterly Review (up to ch. 10) Deck (58):
1

(ch 1) extensive properties relate to

how much matter is present in a sample

2

(ch 1) intensive properties are characteristic of

the type of matter

3

(ch 2) law of constant composition: all samples of a pure substance contain

the same elements in the same proportions

4

(ch 2) law of multiple proportions: for different compounds formed from the same elements, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other are in a

ratio of small whole numbers

5

(ch 2) atomic mass unit (u) is defined as exactly

1/12 off the mass of a carbon-12 atom

6

(ch 3) neutralization reaction: chemical reaction that takes place between

an acid and a base

7

(ch 3) combustion reaction: involve reactions with

oxygen

8

(ch 4) most ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds dissociate completely into ions in water and are known as

strong electrolytes

9

(ch 4) molarity: the number of

moles of solute per liter of solution

10

(ch 4) indicators that change color at or near the .. are used to determine when an equivalent amount of the solution of known concentration has been added

equivalence point

11

(ch 4) titration: a procedure to determine the quantity of one substance by

adding a measured amount of a second substance

12

(ch 4) gravimetric analysis: one component of a solution is ...., separated from solution, dried, and weighed

precipitated selectively

13

(ch 5) heat transfers from ... to ...

warmer object; cooler object

14

(ch 5) universe=

system + surroundings

15

(ch 5) total energy =

KE + PE

16

(ch 5) potential energy: energy of

condition or position

17

(ch 5) enthalpy ... be measured

cannot

18

(ch 5) state function: any property of a system that is determined by the

present conditions of the system

19

(ch 5) heat capacity: the quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of that object by

1 K

20

(ch 5) specific heat: heat needed to increase the temp of a

1 g sample by 1 K

21

(ch 5) hess's law states that the change in enthalpy for an equation obtained by adding two or more thermochemical equations is the sum of the

enthalpy changes of the equations that were added

22

(ch 4) soluble ionic compounds without exceptions:

group 1 metals, NH4+, nitrates, perchlorates, acetates

23

(ch 4) soluble ionic compounds with exceptions

chlorides, bromides, iodides (except: ag+, Hg2^2-, Pb2+)
sulfates (hg2^2-, Pb2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)

24

(ch 4) insoluble ionic compounds:

carbonates (ex. group 1, nh4+)
phosphates (ex. group 1, nh4+)
hydroxides (ex. group 1, NH4+, Sr2+, Ba2+)

25

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
gases are .. particles in ... and ... motion, and there are no forces of attraction or repulsion between any 2 gas particles

small; constant; random

26

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
gas particles are very small compared with

sample volumes

27

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
collisions of gas particles with each other and with the walls of the container are

elastic

28

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
the average kinetic energy of the gas particles is proportional to the

temperature on the kelvin scale

29

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
the gas particles do not all move at the same speed but have speeds given by the

maxwell-boltzmann distribution

30

(ch 6) kinetic molecular theory:
exceptions to the premises of the theory occur at

high pressures and low temps

31

(ch 6) 1 atm = ... torr

760

32

(ch 6) 1 atm= ...kPa

101.325 kPa

33

(ch 6) all gases have the same .... at a ....

average kinetic energy; given temperature

34

(ch 7) shorter wavelengths are

higher in energy

35

(ch 7) order of visible light

VIBGYOR

36

(ch 7) λ= (de Broglie)

h/mv

37

(ch 7) distribution of wavelengths changes with

temperature

38

(ch 7) greater value of n=

greater distance from nucleus

39

(ch 7) l values are

0 to n-1

40

(ch 7) ml values are

-l to l

41

(ch 7) pauli exclusion principle: no two atoms can have the

same set of four quantum numbers

42

(ch 7) aufbau principle: electrons go into

lowest available energy level

43

(ch 7) hund's rule: electrons in degenerate orbitals do not pair until there is

one electron in each orbital of the set

44

(ch 8) isoelectronic series: same number of

electrons for group atoms and ions

45

(ch 8) atomic radii decrease across periods due to increase in

effective nuclear charge

46

(ch 8) atomic radii increase down groups due to increased

electron shielding→expanded radius

47

(ch 8) ionization energy: energy required to

remove 1+ electrons

48

(ch 8) in an isoelectronic series, the ionization energy is greatest for the species with the

most protons in the nucleus

49

(ch 8) electron affinity: energy change that accompanies the

addition of an electron to a gaseous atom/ion

50

(ch 8) in general, elements to the right side and at the top of the periodic table have ... elecron affnities

exothermic (favorable)

51

(ch 9) lattice energy: energy required to separate one mole of crystal lattice into

corresponding ions

52

(ch 9) coulomb's law:

E= kQ1Q2/r

53

(ch 9) the higher the bond order, the ... and ... the bond

shorter; stronger

54

(ch 9) bond order=

# bonds/ # regions of bonding

55

(ch 9) dipole moment: measure of the

unequal sharing of electrons

56

(ch 9) bond energy: energy required to break

1 mol of bonds in a gaseous species

57

(ch 9) bond energies are

averages

58

(ch 9) born-haber cycle:

5 simpler reactions; most reactions don't occur in one step