Flashcards in Final AP Test Review Deck (85):
distillation: the action of ...a liquid by a process of ... and ...
purifying; heating; cooling
law of definite proportions: a given compound always contains the same
proportions of elements by mass
law of multiple proportions: when two elements form a series of compounds,, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to
small whole numbers
at the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same
number of particles
mass spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of
molecular ions and fragments
mass spectrometry can be used to determine: ..., the ... of an unknown substance, and info on ....
molecular mass; structure; isotopic abundance
when wavelength increases, ... and ... decrease
wavelength is the ... between two
distance; adjacent peaks of waves
frequency is the ... that pass a ...
number of waves; given point per second
excited electrons in an atom return to
lower energy states
energy is emitted in the form of a
photon of definite wavelength
orbitals are areas of ....
probability for locating electrons
heisenberg uncertainty principle: "there is a fundamental limitation on how precisely we can know both the ... and ... of a particle at a given time"
principal quantum number indicates the ... from the nucleus
angular momentum quantum number (l): varies from ... to .... and indicates the ... of the orbitals
0 to n-1; shape
magnetic quantum number (ml): varies from ... to ..., and indicates the ... of the orbital in space
l to -l; orientation
spin quantum number: an orbital can hold only ... electrons, and they must have ...
two electrons; opposite spins
pauli exclusion principle: in a given atom no two electrons can have the
same set of four quantum numbers
aufbau principle: electrons fill the lowest available
energy levels before filling higher levels
hund's rule: every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before
any one orbital is doubly occupied
electron affinity: the energy change associated with the
addition of an electron
lattice energy: the energy required to ... a mole of an ionic solid into
separate; gaseous ions
VSEPR model: the structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing ....
non-bonding and bonding electron pairs will be as ....
electron-pair repulsions; far apart as possible
hybridization: the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce
new orbitals of equal energies
molecular orbital model: molecular orbitals can hold two electrons with ..., explains why O2 is ...
opposite spins; paramagnetic
paramagnetism: associated with
diamagnetism: associated with
surface tension: the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its ..., high surface tensions are due to .... intermolecular forces
surface area; strong
capillary action: ... forces between molecules of the same substance vs. ... forces for molecules of different substances
viscosity: measure of a liquid's resistance to ...
viscosity increases with ... and ...
intermolecular forces; molecular size
substitutional alloys: host metal atoms are ... in the lattice by other atoms of ...
replaced; similar size
interstitial alloys: holes in the closest packed metallic structure are filled by ...
vapor pressure: pressure at which the rate of ... equals the rate of ...
vapor pressure increases with ... and decreases with ... intermolecular forces
for heating cooling curves, steeper slopes mean smaller
for heating cooling curves, the length of the constant lines: longer means more ... is needed
it is harder to ... than to ...
energy; boil; melt
graham's law of effusion:
------- = --------
rate 2 √M1
(steps in solution formation) ΔH1: expanding the ...
ΔH2: expanding the ...
ΔH3: interaction of ... and ... to form the solution
solute; solvent; solute and solvent
heterogenous catalysis steps:
1. ... and ... of the reactants
2. .... of the adsorbed reactants on the surface
3. ... of the adsorbed substances
4. ...., or desorption, of the products
adsorption; activation; migration; reaction; escape
specific heat capacity: energy required to raise the
temp of 1g of a substance by 1 degree C
second law of thermodynamics: in any spontaneous process there is always an
increase in the entropy of the universe
ΔH - TΔS
when both ΔH and ΔS are negative, the reaction is spontaneous if temperatures are
when both ΔH and ΔS are positive, the reaction is spontaneous if temps are
ΔG= ΔG∘ +
q + w
henry's law: the amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the
pressure of the gas above the solution
the solubility of a solid is ... if the solution already contains ions ...
lowered; common to the solid
effective buffer concentrations range from
.1 to 1.0 M
E= E∘ - .0591/n * logQ
metal oxide + h20 -->
(synthesis reactions) nonmetal oxide + water -->
metal oxide + nonmetal oxide -->
metallic hydroxide -->
metal oxide + water
(decomposition reactions) nonbinary acid →
nonmetal oxide + water
(decomposition reactions) nonbinary salt →
metal oxide + nonmetal oxide
(decomposition reactions) metallic chlorates →
metallic chlorides + oxygen
(decomposition reactions) electrolysis decomposes compounds into
(decomposition reactions) metallic carbonates →
metal oxides + CO2
(decomposition reactions) ammonium carbonate →
ammonia, water, CO2
factors that increase the rate of reactions:
increasing concentration of reactants, increasing temperature, catalysts, increasing surface area
a precipitate will form when Q is ... than Ksp
anode: ..., electrons flow ... from it
cathode: ...., electrons flow ... it
electrolysis involves forcing a current through a cell to produce a chemical change or which the cell potential is
covalent network: atoms/molecules at ..., covalent bonds between all particles, .../..., very high relative ... and ...
lattice sites; hard/brittle; melting and boiling pts; SiO2
binary acids become ... as you go down a group due to increasing ... and .... across a period due to increasing ...
stronger; size; stronger; electronegativity