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Flashcards in Final AP Test Review Deck (85):
1

distillation: the action of ...a liquid by a process of ... and ...

purifying; heating; cooling

2

law of definite proportions: a given compound always contains the same

proportions of elements by mass

3

law of multiple proportions: when two elements form a series of compounds,, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to

small whole numbers

4

at the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same

number of particles

5

mass spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of

molecular ions and fragments

6

mass spectrometry can be used to determine: ..., the ... of an unknown substance, and info on ....

molecular mass; structure; isotopic abundance

7

when wavelength increases, ... and ... decrease

frequency; energy

8

wavelength is the ... between two

distance; adjacent peaks of waves

9

frequency is the ... that pass a ...

number of waves; given point per second

10

excited electrons in an atom return to

lower energy states

11

energy is emitted in the form of a

photon of definite wavelength

12

orbitals are areas of ....

probability for locating electrons

13

heisenberg uncertainty principle: "there is a fundamental limitation on how precisely we can know both the ... and ... of a particle at a given time"

position; momentum

14

principal quantum number indicates the ... from the nucleus

distance

15

angular momentum quantum number (l): varies from ... to .... and indicates the ... of the orbitals

0 to n-1; shape

16

magnetic quantum number (ml): varies from ... to ..., and indicates the ... of the orbital in space

l to -l; orientation

17

spin quantum number: an orbital can hold only ... electrons, and they must have ...

two electrons; opposite spins

18

pauli exclusion principle: in a given atom no two electrons can have the

same set of four quantum numbers

19

aufbau principle: electrons fill the lowest available

energy levels before filling higher levels

20

hund's rule: every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before

any one orbital is doubly occupied

21

electron affinity: the energy change associated with the

addition of an electron

22

lattice energy: the energy required to ... a mole of an ionic solid into

separate; gaseous ions

23

VSEPR model: the structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing ....
non-bonding and bonding electron pairs will be as ....

electron-pair repulsions; far apart as possible

24

hybridization: the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce

new orbitals of equal energies

25

molecular orbital model: molecular orbitals can hold two electrons with ..., explains why O2 is ...

opposite spins; paramagnetic

26

paramagnetism: associated with

unpaired electrons

27

diamagnetism: associated with

paired electrons

28

surface tension: the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its ..., high surface tensions are due to .... intermolecular forces

surface area; strong

29

capillary action: ... forces between molecules of the same substance vs. ... forces for molecules of different substances

cohesive; adhesive

30

viscosity: measure of a liquid's resistance to ...

flow

31

viscosity increases with ... and ...

intermolecular forces; molecular size

32

substitutional alloys: host metal atoms are ... in the lattice by other atoms of ...

replaced; similar size

33

interstitial alloys: holes in the closest packed metallic structure are filled by ...

small atoms

34

vapor pressure: pressure at which the rate of ... equals the rate of ...

condensation; evaporation

35

vapor pressure increases with ... and decreases with ... intermolecular forces

temperature; stronger

36

for heating cooling curves, steeper slopes mean smaller

specific heats

37

for heating cooling curves, the length of the constant lines: longer means more ... is needed
it is harder to ... than to ...

energy; boil; melt

38

graham's law of effusion:

rate1 √M2
------- = --------
rate 2 √M1

39

tB
--- =
tA

√Mb
------
√Ma

40

(steps in solution formation) ΔH1: expanding the ...
ΔH2: expanding the ...
ΔH3: interaction of ... and ... to form the solution

solute; solvent; solute and solvent

41

Rate= ...

Δ[A]/Δt

42

heterogenous catalysis steps:
1. ... and ... of the reactants
2. .... of the adsorbed reactants on the surface
3. ... of the adsorbed substances
4. ...., or desorption, of the products

adsorption; activation; migration; reaction; escape

43

specific heat capacity: energy required to raise the

temp of 1g of a substance by 1 degree C

44

second law of thermodynamics: in any spontaneous process there is always an

increase in the entropy of the universe

45

ΔG=

ΔH - TΔS

46

when both ΔH and ΔS are negative, the reaction is spontaneous if temperatures are

low

47

when both ΔH and ΔS are positive, the reaction is spontaneous if temps are

high

48

ΔG= ΔG∘ +

RTlnQ

49

ΔG∘ =

-RTlnKeq

50

ΔE=

q + w

51

henry's law: the amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the

pressure of the gas above the solution

52

the solubility of a solid is ... if the solution already contains ions ...

lowered; common to the solid

53

effective buffer concentrations range from

.1 to 1.0 M

54

Nernst equation:

E= E∘ - .0591/n * logQ

55

(synthesis reactions)
metal oxide + h20 -->

metallic hydroxide

56

(synthesis reactions) nonmetal oxide + water -->

nonbinary acid

57

(synthesis reactions)
metal oxide + nonmetal oxide -->

nonbinary salt

58

(decomposition reactions)
metallic hydroxide -->

metal oxide + water

59

(decomposition reactions) nonbinary acid →

nonmetal oxide + water

60

(decomposition reactions) nonbinary salt →

metal oxide + nonmetal oxide

61

(decomposition reactions) metallic chlorates →

metallic chlorides + oxygen

62

(decomposition reactions) electrolysis decomposes compounds into

elements

63

(decomposition reactions) metallic carbonates →

metal oxides + CO2

64

(decomposition reactions) ammonium carbonate →

ammonia, water, CO2

65

factors that increase the rate of reactions:

increasing concentration of reactants, increasing temperature, catalysts, increasing surface area

66

a precipitate will form when Q is ... than Ksp

greater than

67

anode: ..., electrons flow ... from it

oxidation; away

68

cathode: ...., electrons flow ... it

reduction; towards

69

electrolysis involves forcing a current through a cell to produce a chemical change or which the cell potential is

negative

70

covalent network: atoms/molecules at ..., covalent bonds between all particles, .../..., very high relative ... and ...
e.g.: ...

lattice sites; hard/brittle; melting and boiling pts; SiO2

71

MX3:

trigonal planar

72

MX2E:

bent

73

MX4:

tetrahedral

74

MX3E:

trigonal pyramidal

75

MX2E2:

bent

76

MX5:

trigonal bipyramidal

77

MX4E:

seesaw

78

MX3E2:

t-shaped

79

MX2E3:

linear

80

MX6:

octahedral

81

MX5E:

square pyramidal

82

MX4E2:

square planar

83

Kp=

Kc(RT)^Δn

84

binary acids become ... as you go down a group due to increasing ... and .... across a period due to increasing ...

stronger; size; stronger; electronegativity

85

B + H2O

BH+ + OH-