Flashcards in Chapter 4 Flexibility Training for Performance Enhancement Deck (24)
What is Flexibility?
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows full range of motion of a joint and optimum neuromuscular efficiency throughout all functional movements
What is Altered Reciprocal Inhibition?
The concept of muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, decreasing the neural drive of its functional antagonist
What is Synergistic Dominance?
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergists take over the function of a week or inhibited prime mover
What is Arthrokinetic Dysfunction?
The biomechanical dysfunction in two articular partners that lead to abnormal joint movement and proprioception
What is the All or None Principle?
When a muscle fiber is stimulated to contract, the entire fiber contracts completely
What is the Endomysium?
The innermost fascial layer that encases individual muscle fibers
What is the Perimysium?
The sheath that binds groups of muscle fibers into fasciuli
What is the Epimysium?
The outermost layer of a muscle fiber
What is Atrophy?
The loss in muscle fiber size
What is Sarcopenia?
A decrease in muscle fiber numbers
What is Elasticity?
The spring like behavior of connective tissue that enable the tissue to return to its original shape or size when forces are removed
What is Viscoelasticity?
The fluid like property of connective tissue that allows slow deformation with an imperfect recovery after the deforming forces are removed
What is Plasticity?
The residual or permanent change in connective tissue length due to tissue elongation
What is Davis's Law?
Soft tissue models along the lines of stress
What is Wolff's Law?
Bone in a healthy person or animal will adopt to the loads it is placed under
What is Recruitment?
An impulse transmitted simultaneously over an increasing number of nerve fibers, pulling in increasingly more muscle fibers for the task
What is Rate Coding?
The rate at which any individual nerve fiber transmits impulses per unit of time
What are Muscle Spindles?
The major sensory organs of the muscle that are sensitive to change in length and rate of length change
What are Golgi Tendon Organs?
Mechanoreceptors located within the musculotendinous junction that are sensitive to tension and rate of tension change
What are Joint Mechanoreceptors?
Mechanoreceptors located in joints throughout the fibrous capsule and ligaments that respond to joint position, movement, and pressure changes
What is Myotatic Stretch Reflex?
When a muscle is stretched very quickly, the muscle spindle contracts, which in turn stimulates the primary afferent fibers that causes the extrafusal fibers to fire, and tension increases the muscle
What is Corrective Flexibility?
Stretching techniques designed to correct common postural dysfunctions, muscle imbalances, and joint dysfunctions
What is Active Flexibility?
Stretching techniques designed to improve soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion by employing the neurophysiological principle of reciprocal inhibition