the thylakoid membrane lies outside of the stroma
Which of the following statements about fermentation is NOT correct?
Life gains most of its energy from
Although the reactions of the Calvin cycle do not depend directly on light, they do not usually occur at night. Why?
he Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions that cannot occur at night.
ATP is produced in the mitochondria by a series of biochemical reactions. In what order do these reactions occur?
glycolysis, krebs, etc
The three steps, in order, of the Calvin cycle are:
fixation of CO2, sugar creation, and regeneration.
The graphs above show data relating to seasonal differences in the amount of pigment molecules present in leaves and how this is related to leaves changing colors. The graphs indicate that in the fall chlorophyll a and b molecules are broken down and stored in the branches of the plant. As light from the fall sun hits the leaf, what is the result?
The light reflected from the leaf is orange
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans, use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which _______________ converts to ATP, the “fuel” used by all living things.
Mitochondria have a “bag within a bag” structure. This is necessary to
create two distinct regions with a concentration differential, a form of potential energy.
Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis?
Respiration stores energy in complex organic molecules, while photosynthesis releases it.
During photosynthesis, which of the following is the most important molecule in the conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy?
Potential energy is to kinetic energy as ______________ is to _____________.
water held behind a dam; water power being used to turn electric turbines
The conversion of radiant energy to chemical energy occurs in photosynthesis and many other common phenomena, such as brewing tea, fading of dyes in the sun, and photography. In what way is photosynthesis different from these other processes?
Photosynthesis fixes light energy in the form of high potential chemical energy in compounds that do not break down spontaneously and that can be stored until required later for the carrying out of life processes.
Why are leaves green?
Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the blue-violet and red-orange part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
You eat a chocolate bar to get you through a late-night studying session. Your body quickly begins to break down the macromolecules in the candy, using the sugars, lipids, and protein to make ATP. Which of the following is NOT a step in the process of breaking down the candy bar’s macromolecules?
a. First Step: The sugars are broken down to simple glucose molecules and the proteins and lipids are broken down to acetyl-CoA molecules. No energy is produced in this first step.
b. Second Step: Glycolysis converts the glucose to two molecules of pyruvate. Six ATP molecules are produced in this step.
c. Third Step: Oxidation of each pyruvate produces two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Six ATP molecules are produced in this step.
d. Fourth Step: Two acetyl-CoA molecules go through the Krebs (citric acid) cycle. Twenty-four ATP molecules are produced through this process.
e. All of the above steps are part of the break down of the candy bar’s macromolecules.
The graphs above show data relating to seasonal differences in the amount of pigment molecules present in leaves and how this is related to leaves changing colors. What is the independent variable presented in these graphs?
Time at which the amount of pigment in the leaves was measured
arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts.
Energy is released as ATP becomes ADP when ATP ejects
one of its phosphate groups.
The leaves of plants can be thought of as “eating” sunlight. From an energetic perspective, this makes sense because
light energy, like the chemical energy stored in food molecules, is used inside plants to do work.