Chapter 4 The Muscular System Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 The Muscular System Medical Terms Deck (79):
1

inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on the tendon

Achilles tendinitis

2

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

adhesion

3

medication administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions

antispasmodic (anticholinergic) 

4

the lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement

ataxia

5

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

atonic

6

weakness of wearing away of body tissues and structures caused by pathology or by disuse over a long period of time

atrophy

7

extreme slowness in movement

bradykinesia

8

paralysis of the heart muscle

cardioplegia

9

the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve pressure on nerves and tendons

carpal tunnel release

10

swelling that creates pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel 

carpal tunnel syndrome 

11

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, with symptoms similar to those of fibromyalgia syndrome

chronic fatigue syndrome

12

the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles

compartment syndrome

13

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

contracture

14

a painful localized muscle contraction

cramp

15

testing of reflexes to diagnose disruptions of the nerve supply to the involved muscles

deep tendon reflex

16

distortion or impairment of voluntary movements

dyskinesia

17

a condition of abnormal muscle tone

dystonia

18

a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electromyography

19

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

epicondylitis

20

inflammation of a fascia

fasciitis (fascitis) 

21

surgical repair of a fascia

fascioplasty

22

a surgical incision through a fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fasciotomy

23

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

fibromyalgia syndrome

24

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

ganglion cyst

25

a strain or tear of any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee

hamstring injury

26

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the heel

heel spurs

27

slight paralysis affecting only one side of the body

hemiparesis

28

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hyperkinesia (hyperactivity) 

29

a condition in which there is a diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

hypotonia

30

an overuse injury caused by this band rubbing against bone, often in the area of the knee

iliotibial band syndrome

31

inflammation of tendons that get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

impingement syndrome

32

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

intermittent claudication

33

removal of a plug of tissue with a biopsy needed for examination

muscle biopsy

34

the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible

muscle tone

35

a group of more than 30 genetic disorders that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles without affecting the nervous system

muscular dystropy

36

tenderness or pain in the muscles

myalgia

37

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscle

myasthenia gravis

38

the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myocele

39

the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

myoclonus

40

a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body

myofascial pain syndrome

41

a specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorder, and carpal tunnel syndrome

myofascial release

42

the degeneration of muscle tissue

myolysis

43

weakness or slight muscular paralysis

myoparesis

44

surgical suturing of a muscle

myorrhaphy

45

the rupture or tearing of a muscle

myorrhexis

46

a surgical incision into a muscle

myotomy

47

a medication that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

neuromuscular blocker (neuromuscular blocking agent) 

48

a form of massage that uses soft-tissue manipulation focusing on applying pressure to trigger points to treat injuries and alleviate pain

neuromuscular therapy

49

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

nocturnal myoclonus

50

activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in performing the activities of daily living

occupational therapy

51

injuries that occur when minor tissue injuries have not been given time to heal

overuse injuries

52

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint

overuse tendinitis (overuse tendonosis) 

53

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injuries to its nerve supply

paralysis

54

paralysis of both legs and lower part of the body

paraplegia

55

treatment to prevent disability or to restore function through the use of exercise, heat, massage, or other techniques

physical therapy

56

inflammation of the plantar fascia causing foot or heel pain when walking or running

plantar fasciitis

57

muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

polymyositis

58

paralysis of all four extremities

quadriplegia

59

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength

range of motion testing

60

a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal activities

repetitive stress disorders (repetitive motion disorders) 

61

inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff

rotator cuff tendinitis

62

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues. this occurs as the irritated tendon weakens and tears

ruptured rotator cuff

63

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

sarcopenia

64

pain caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia

shin splint

65

myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm

singultus (hiccups) 

66

administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

skeletal muscle relaxants

67

a sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles

spasm (charley horse, especially when in leg) 

68

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

spasmodic torticollis (wryneck) 

69

paralysis resulting from damage to the spinal cord that prevents nerve impulses from being transmitted below the level of injury

spinal cord injuries

70

an injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist, that usually involves a wrenched or torn ligament

sprain

71

an injury to the body of a muscle or the attachment of a tendon

strain

72

a small crack in a bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact

stress fracture

73

inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

tendinitis (tendonitis, tenonitis, tenontitis) 

74

surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to bone

tenodesis

75

the release of a tendon from adhesions

tenolysis (tendolysis) 

76

surgical suturing of the divided ends of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

77

inflammation of the sheath around a tendon

tenosynovitis

78

the use of high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue

therapeutic ultrasound

79

a method of pain control by wearing a device that delivers small electrical impulses to the nerve endings through the skin

transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation

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